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Article

Children’s Anxiety and Factors Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Exploratory Study Using the Children’s Anxiety Questionnaire and the Numerical Rating Scale

1
Department of Nursing, Botucatu Medical School–UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu 18618-687, Brazil
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Department of Neurology, Botucatu Medical School–UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu 18618-687, Brazil
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Institute of Health Sciences, University West, 461 86 Trollhättan, Sweden
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The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, 416 50 Gothenburg, Sweden
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Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg Centre for Person-Centred Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5757; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165757
Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 9 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
The repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s lives deserve attention. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety among Brazilian children and its associated factors during social distancing during COVID-19. We used a cross-sectional design with an online survey from April to May 2020 in Brazil. We included children aged 6–12 years and their guardians. The Children’s Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ; scores 4–12) and the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS; scores 0–10) were used to measure anxiety. We enrolled 157 girls and 132 boys, with a mean age of 8.84 (±2.05) years; 88.9% of respondents were mothers. Based on CAQ ≥ 9, the prevalence of anxiety was 19.4% (n = 56), and higher among children with parents with essential jobs and those who were social distancing without parents. In logistic regression, the following variables were associated with higher CAQ scores: social distancing without parents; more persons living together in home; and education level of guardians. Based on NRS > 7, the prevalence of anxiety was 21.8% (n = 63); however, no associations with NRS scores were found with the investigated variables. These findings suggest the necessity of implementing public health actions targeting these parents and their children at the population level. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety; children; Covid-19; pandemic; social isolation anxiety; children; Covid-19; pandemic; social isolation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia de Avila, M.A.; Hamamoto Filho, P.T.; Jacob, F.L.d.S.; Alcantara, L.R.S.; Berghammer, M.; Jenholt Nolbris, M.; Olaya-Contreras, P.; Nilsson, S. Children’s Anxiety and Factors Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Exploratory Study Using the Children’s Anxiety Questionnaire and the Numerical Rating Scale. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5757. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165757

AMA Style

Garcia de Avila MA, Hamamoto Filho PT, Jacob FLdS, Alcantara LRS, Berghammer M, Jenholt Nolbris M, Olaya-Contreras P, Nilsson S. Children’s Anxiety and Factors Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Exploratory Study Using the Children’s Anxiety Questionnaire and the Numerical Rating Scale. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16):5757. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165757

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcia de Avila, Marla A., Pedro T. Hamamoto Filho, Francine L.d.S. Jacob, Léia R.S. Alcantara, Malin Berghammer, Margaretha Jenholt Nolbris, Patricia Olaya-Contreras, and Stefan Nilsson. 2020. "Children’s Anxiety and Factors Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Exploratory Study Using the Children’s Anxiety Questionnaire and the Numerical Rating Scale" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 16: 5757. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165757

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