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Article

Prenatal Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure and Pregnancy Outcomes—Analysis of Term Pregnancies in Poland

1
Department of Oncologic Gynecology and Obstetrics, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, 231 Czerniakowska St., 00-416 Warsaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, State University of Applied Sciences, 16 Kaszubska St., 62-800 Kalisz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5820; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165820
Received: 20 June 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 11 August 2020
Air pollution is currently one of the greatest threats to global health. Polish cities are among the most heavily polluted in Europe. Due to air pollution 43,100 people die prematurely in Poland every year. However, these data do not take into account the health consequences of air pollution for unborn children. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the fine particulate matter air pollution (less than 2.5 μm in diameter) on pregnancy outcomes. An analysis of pregnant women and their children was made using a questionnaire survey from a nationwide study conducted in 2017. Questionnaires from 1095 pregnant women and data from their medical records were collected. An analysis of air pollution in Poland was conducted using the air quality database maintained by the Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Poland. A higher concentration of PM2.5 was associated with a decrease in birth weight and a higher risk of low birthweight (i.e., <2500 g). We also observed lower APGAR scores. Thus, all possible efforts to reduce air pollution are critically needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; pregnancy; PM2.5; pregnancy outcomes air pollution; pregnancy; PM2.5; pregnancy outcomes
MDPI and ACS Style

Wojtyla, C.; Zielinska, K.; Wojtyla-Buciora, P.; Panek, G. Prenatal Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure and Pregnancy Outcomes—Analysis of Term Pregnancies in Poland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5820. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165820

AMA Style

Wojtyla C, Zielinska K, Wojtyla-Buciora P, Panek G. Prenatal Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure and Pregnancy Outcomes—Analysis of Term Pregnancies in Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16):5820. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165820

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wojtyla, Cezary, Karolina Zielinska, Paulina Wojtyla-Buciora, and Grzegorz Panek. 2020. "Prenatal Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure and Pregnancy Outcomes—Analysis of Term Pregnancies in Poland" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 16: 5820. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165820

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