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Article

Hyperhomocysteinemia Concurrent with Metabolic Syndrome Is Independently Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease among Community-Dwelling Adults in an Urban Korean Population

by 1, 2,3,* and 2,4
1
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu 42472, Korea
2
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea
3
Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu 41944, Korea
4
Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu 41404, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186810
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the combined effects of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and MetS on CKD among community-dwelling adults in an urban area of South Korea. We also identified the combination of HHcy and individual MetS components associated with the maximal risk of CKD. A retrospective cross-sectional study involving 19,311 health examinees between 2 January 2011 and 31 December 2015 was conducted. The participants were divided into four groups—namely, the HHcy−/MetS−, HHcy−/MetS+, HHcy+/MetS−, and HHcy+/MetS+ groups. CKD was defined as a low eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria. The HHcy+/MetS+ group had a higher risk of CKD than the HHcy−/MetS+ group (odds ratio (OR): 1.750, p = 0.002 for males; OR: 3.224, p < 0.001 for females). The HHcy+/MetS+ group had a higher CKD risk than the HHcy+/MetS− group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (OR: 1.070, p = 0.712 for males; OR: 1.847, and p < 0.074 for females). HHcy concurrent with MetS increased the CKD risk. Among the combinations of HHcy and MetS components, the coexistence of HHcy and central obesity had the greatest effect on CKD. Therefore, the timely detection and treatment of HHcy and MetS are important for preventing CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; homocysteine; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria; cross-sectional study metabolic syndrome; homocysteine; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria; cross-sectional study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moon, H.; Ko, H.-J.; Kim, A.-S. Hyperhomocysteinemia Concurrent with Metabolic Syndrome Is Independently Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease among Community-Dwelling Adults in an Urban Korean Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6810. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186810

AMA Style

Moon H, Ko H-J, Kim A-S. Hyperhomocysteinemia Concurrent with Metabolic Syndrome Is Independently Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease among Community-Dwelling Adults in an Urban Korean Population. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6810. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186810

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moon, Hana, Hae-Jin Ko, and A-Sol Kim. 2020. "Hyperhomocysteinemia Concurrent with Metabolic Syndrome Is Independently Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease among Community-Dwelling Adults in an Urban Korean Population" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6810. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186810

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