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Article

Recognizing Emotions through Facial Expressions: A Largescale Experimental Study

1
Center for Rehabilitation Research, School of Health, Polytechnic of Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
2
Laboratory of Neuropsychophysiology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
3
Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
4
Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health, School of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
5
International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7420; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17207420
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 4 October 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Differences in Emotions, Cognition, and Behavior)
Experimental research examining emotional processes is typically based on the observation of images with affective content, including facial expressions. Future studies will benefit from databases with emotion-inducing stimuli in which characteristics of the stimuli potentially influencing results can be controlled. This study presents Portuguese normative data for the identification of seven facial expressions of emotions (plus a neutral face), on the Radboud Faces Database (RaFD). The effect of participants’ gender and models’ sex on emotion recognition was also examined. Participants (N = 1249) were exposed to 312 pictures of white adults displaying emotional and neutral faces with a frontal gaze. Recognition agreement between the displayed and participants’ chosen expressions ranged from 69% (for anger) to 97% (for happiness). Recognition levels were significantly higher among women than among men only for anger and contempt. The emotion recognition was higher either in female models or in male models depending on the emotion. Overall, the results show high recognition levels of the facial expressions presented, indicating that the RaFD provides adequate stimuli for studies examining the recognition of facial expressions of emotion among college students. Participants’ gender had a limited influence on emotion recognition, but the sex of the model requires additional consideration. View Full-Text
Keywords: emotions; emotion recognition; facial expressions; RaFD; gender differences emotions; emotion recognition; facial expressions; RaFD; gender differences
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dores, A.R.; Barbosa, F.; Queirós, C.; Carvalho, I.P.; Griffiths, M.D. Recognizing Emotions through Facial Expressions: A Largescale Experimental Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7420. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17207420

AMA Style

Dores AR, Barbosa F, Queirós C, Carvalho IP, Griffiths MD. Recognizing Emotions through Facial Expressions: A Largescale Experimental Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7420. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17207420

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dores, Artemisa R., Fernando Barbosa, Cristina Queirós, Irene P. Carvalho, and Mark D. Griffiths 2020. "Recognizing Emotions through Facial Expressions: A Largescale Experimental Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 20: 7420. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17207420

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