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Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Fatality and Severity in Patients with Coronavirus Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) Database

1
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, Korea
2
Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, Korea
3
LINEWALKS Inc., Seoul 06235, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228559
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 14 November 2020 / Published: 18 November 2020
Background: We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for fatality and severity in these patients. Methods: In this nationwide population-based retrospective study, we investigated the data of 7339 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients, aged ≥ 18 years, using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database. Comorbidities and medications used were identified using HIRA codes, and severe COVID-19 was defined as that requiring oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilator, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The outcomes were death due to COVID-19 and COVID-19 severity. Results: Mean patient age was 47.1 years; 2970 (40.1%) patients were male. Lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics, ribavirin, oseltamivir, and interferon were administered to 35.8%, 28.4%, 38.1%, 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.9% of patients, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, previous history of pneumonia, aging, and male were significantly associated with increased risk of death and severe disease. No medication was associated with a reduced risk of fatality and disease severity. Conclusions: We found several risk factors for fatality and severity in COVID-19 patients. As the drugs currently used for COVID-19 treatment have not shown significant efficacy, all efforts should be made to develop effective therapeutic modalities for COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; pandemic; comorbidity; death; prognosis coronavirus; pandemic; comorbidity; death; prognosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.-G.; Park, G.U.; Moon, Y.R.; Sung, K. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Fatality and Severity in Patients with Coronavirus Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) Database. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8559. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228559

AMA Style

Lee S-G, Park GU, Moon YR, Sung K. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Fatality and Severity in Patients with Coronavirus Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) Database. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(22):8559. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228559

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Seung-Geun, Geun U. Park, Yeo R. Moon, and Kihoon Sung. 2020. "Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Fatality and Severity in Patients with Coronavirus Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) Database" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 22: 8559. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228559

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