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Article

Improvement of Ficin-Based Inhibitive Enzyme Assay for Toxic Metals Using Response Surface Methodology and Its Application for Near Real-Time Monitoring of Mercury in Marine Waters

1
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, College of Science and Technology, Jigawa State Polytechnic, Dutse PMB 7040, Nigeria
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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Applied Science, UCSI University, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8585; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228585
Received: 29 August 2020 / Revised: 4 October 2020 / Accepted: 5 October 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
Potentially toxic metals pollution in the Straits of Malacca warrants the development of rapid, simple and sensitive assays. Enzyme-based assays are excellent preliminary screening tools with near real-time potential. The heavy-metal assay based on the protease ficin was optimized for mercury detection using response surface methodology. The inhibitive assay is based on ficin action on the substrate casein and residual casein is determined using the Coomassie dye-binding assay. Toxic metals strongly inhibit this hydrolysis. A central composite design (CCD) was utilized to optimize the detection of toxic metals. The results show a marked improvement for the concentration causing 50% inhibition (IC50) for mercury, silver and copper. Compared to one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) optimization, RSM gave an improvement of IC50 (mg/L) from 0.060 (95% CI, 0.030–0.080) to 0.017 (95% CI, 0.016–0.019), from 0.098 (95% CI, 0.077–0.127) to 0.028 (95% CI, 0.022–0.037) and from 0.040 (95% CI, 0.035–0.045) to 0.023 (95% CI, 0.020–0.027), for mercury, silver and copper, respectively. A near-real time monitoring of mercury concentration in the Straits of Malacca at one location in Port Klang was carried out over a 4 h interval for a total of 24 h and validated by instrumental analysis, with the result revealing an absence of mercury pollution in the sampling site. View Full-Text
Keywords: inhibitive assay; mercury; ficin; RSM; near real-time inhibitive assay; mercury; ficin; RSM; near real-time
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MDPI and ACS Style

Uba, G.; Manogaran, M.; Gunasekaran, B.; Halmi, M.I.E.; Shukor, M.Y.A. Improvement of Ficin-Based Inhibitive Enzyme Assay for Toxic Metals Using Response Surface Methodology and Its Application for Near Real-Time Monitoring of Mercury in Marine Waters. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228585

AMA Style

Uba G, Manogaran M, Gunasekaran B, Halmi MIE, Shukor MYA. Improvement of Ficin-Based Inhibitive Enzyme Assay for Toxic Metals Using Response Surface Methodology and Its Application for Near Real-Time Monitoring of Mercury in Marine Waters. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(22):8585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228585

Chicago/Turabian Style

Uba, Garba, Motharasan Manogaran, Baskaran Gunasekaran, Mohd I.E. Halmi, and Mohd Y.A. Shukor 2020. "Improvement of Ficin-Based Inhibitive Enzyme Assay for Toxic Metals Using Response Surface Methodology and Its Application for Near Real-Time Monitoring of Mercury in Marine Waters" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 22: 8585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228585

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