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Article

Metal Fractionation in Surface Sediments of the Brahmaputra River and Implications for Their Mobilization

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LUT School of Engineering Sciences, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
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Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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Faculty of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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School of Civil Engineering and Surveying, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, West Street, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
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Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Mining, Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
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Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62521, Egypt
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249214
Received: 3 October 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
The Brahmaputra River is the largest tropical river in India that flows along the Himalayan regions and it is the lifeline of millions of people. Metal fractionation in the Brahmaputra River’s surface sediments and its correlation with turbidity are assessed in this study. The interaction between metal fractions and the overlying water is studied using multivariate statistical analyses. The strong positive correlation between NH4 of the overlying water and the exchangeable fractions in sediments signifies that the metals in the exchangeable fractions can be substituted by NH4. Subsequently, these metals can be released into the overlying water. The fluctuation in turbidity from 73 to 875 NTU indicates a large variation in the suspended matter concentration, and a higher concentration of suspended matter could provide attachment sites for pollutants such as metals. Significant variation in turbidity manifests a potentially high risk of pollution. In addition, the observation of local people along the Brahmaputra River turning its color to muddy indicates the need for continuous monitoring of water quality and an assessment of pollution is crucial. Although the Brahmaputra River’s risk assessment code is at low risk, the exchangeable fractions of Ni and Zn are present at all sites. Thus, the Brahmaputra River requires early preventive measures and management strategies to control metal pollution. This study contributes to an understanding of the fluctuation of turbidity of a tropical river. We provide baseline data for policymakers, and the importance of further intensive studies on metal pollution in the Himalayan Rivers is highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brahmaputra River; heavy metal; sequential extraction; sediments; turbidity; India Brahmaputra River; heavy metal; sequential extraction; sediments; turbidity; India
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsering, T.; Sillanpää, M.; Reinikainen, S.-P.; Abdel Wahed, M.S.M. Metal Fractionation in Surface Sediments of the Brahmaputra River and Implications for Their Mobilization. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9214. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249214

AMA Style

Tsering T, Sillanpää M, Reinikainen S-P, Abdel Wahed MSM. Metal Fractionation in Surface Sediments of the Brahmaputra River and Implications for Their Mobilization. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24):9214. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249214

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsering, Tenzin, Mika Sillanpää, Satu-Pia Reinikainen, and Mahmoud S.M. Abdel Wahed. 2020. "Metal Fractionation in Surface Sediments of the Brahmaputra River and Implications for Their Mobilization" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 24: 9214. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249214

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