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Article

Effectiveness of Text-Only Cigarette Health Warnings in Japan: Findings from the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey

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Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
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Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, 661 University Ave, Suite 510, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada
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School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
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Cancer Control Center, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Chome-1-69 Otemae, Chuo Ward, Osaka 541-8567, Japan
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Division of Tobacco Policy Research, National Cancer Center Japan, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
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Japan Cancer Society, 13th Floor, Yurakucho Center Bldg. 2-5-1, Yurakucho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0006, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 952; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030952
Received: 6 December 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 February 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
Health warnings are an effective strategy for communicating the health harms of smoking, encouraging quitting, and preventing smoking initiation. This study examines the effectiveness of existing text-only health warnings, identifies key predictors of warning effectiveness, and assesses support for pictorial warnings in Japan. Data are from the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey, a cohort survey of adult cigarette smokers (n = 3306), dual users of cigarettes and heated tobacco products (n = 555), and non-cigarette smokers (n = 823). Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of warning effectiveness and support for pictorial warnings. Overall, 15.6% of respondents noticed warnings, and 7.9% read or looked closely at warnings. Overall, 10.3% of smokers and dual users said the warnings stopped them from having a cigarette, and 7.2% avoided warnings. Overall, 27.5% of respondents said the warnings made them think about health risks of smoking, but only 2.7% of smokers and dual users said the warnings made them more likely to quit. Overall, 57.6% of respondents supported pictorial warnings. The weak effectiveness of Japan’s text-only warnings is consistent with that in other countries with similar warnings. There is majority support for pictorial warnings in Japan, although the level of support is lower than in other countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: Japan; cigarette package warning labels; support; tobacco policy Japan; cigarette package warning labels; support; tobacco policy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chung-Hall, J.; Fong, G.T.; Meng, G.; Yan, M.; Tabuchi, T.; Yoshimi, I.; Mochizuki, Y.; Craig, L.V.; Ouimet, J.; Quah, A.C.K. Effectiveness of Text-Only Cigarette Health Warnings in Japan: Findings from the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 952. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030952

AMA Style

Chung-Hall J, Fong GT, Meng G, Yan M, Tabuchi T, Yoshimi I, Mochizuki Y, Craig LV, Ouimet J, Quah ACK. Effectiveness of Text-Only Cigarette Health Warnings in Japan: Findings from the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(3):952. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030952

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chung-Hall, Janet, Geoffrey T. Fong, Gang Meng, Mi Yan, Takahiro Tabuchi, Itsuro Yoshimi, Yumiko Mochizuki, Lorraine V. Craig, Janine Ouimet, and Anne C.K. Quah 2020. "Effectiveness of Text-Only Cigarette Health Warnings in Japan: Findings from the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 3: 952. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030952

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