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Article

Establishment of Regional Concentration–Duration–Frequency Relationships of Air Pollution: A Case Study for PM2.5

Department of Geomatics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041419
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 18 February 2020 / Accepted: 19 February 2020 / Published: 22 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Modeling of Air Pollutant Variability)
Poor air quality usually leads to PM2.5 warnings and affects human health. The impact of frequency and duration of extreme air quality has received considerable attention. The extreme concentration of air pollution is related to its duration and annual frequency of occurrence known as concentration–duration–frequency (CDF) relationships. However, the CDF formulas are empirical equations representing the relationship between the maximum concentration as a dependent variable and other parameters of interest, i.e., duration and annual frequency of occurrence. As a basis for deducing the extreme CDF relationship of PM2.5, the function assumes that the extreme concentration is related to the duration and frequency. In addition, the spatial pattern estimation of extreme PM2.5 is identified. The regional CDF identifies the regional extreme concentration with a specified duration and return period. The spatial pattern of extreme air pollution over 8 h duration shows the hotspots of air quality in the central and southwestern areas. Central and southwestern Taiwan is at high risk of exposure to air pollution. Use of the regional CDF analysis is highly recommended for efficient design of air quality management and control. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; duration; frequency; spatial map PM2.5; duration; frequency; spatial map
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chu, H.-J.; Ali, M.Z. Establishment of Regional Concentration–Duration–Frequency Relationships of Air Pollution: A Case Study for PM2.5. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1419. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041419

AMA Style

Chu H-J, Ali MZ. Establishment of Regional Concentration–Duration–Frequency Relationships of Air Pollution: A Case Study for PM2.5. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(4):1419. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041419

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chu, Hone-Jay, and Muhammad Z. Ali 2020. "Establishment of Regional Concentration–Duration–Frequency Relationships of Air Pollution: A Case Study for PM2.5" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 4: 1419. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041419

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