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Review

Neonicotinoids: Spreading, Translocation and Aquatic Toxicity

1
Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, H-1022 Budapest, Herman O. u. 15, Hungary
2
Department of Experimental Zoology, Centre for Ecological Research, Balaton Limnological Institute, H-8237 Tihany POB 35, Hungary
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2006; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17062006
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonicotinoid Insecticides Exposure, Mode of Action and Their Effects)
Various environmental and ecotoxicological aspects related to applications of neonicotinoid insecticides are assessed. Dosages of neonicotinoids applied in seed coating materials were determined and are compared to other applications (spray and granule). Environmental levels in soils and affecting factors in translocation are discussed. Excretion of neonicotinoids via guttation from coated maize seeds up to two months upon emergence, as well as cross-contamination of plants emerged from non-coated seeds or weeds nearby have been demonstrated. Contamination of surface waters is discussed in scope of a worldwide review and the environmental fate of the neonicotinoid active ingredients and the formulating surfactant appeared to be mutually affected by each other. Toxicity of neonicotinoid active ingredients and formulations on Daphnia magna completed with some investigations of activity of the detoxifying glutathione S-transferase enzyme demonstrated the modified toxicity due to the formulating agents. Electrophysiological results on identified central neurons of the terrestrial snail Helix pomatia showed acetylcholine antagonist (inhibitory) effects of neonicotinoid insecticide products, but no agonist (ACh-like) effects were recorded. These data also suggested different molecular targets (nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine esterase enzyme) of neonicotinoids in the snail central nervous system. View Full-Text
Keywords: acetycholine esterase (AChE); Daphnia magna; dosages; glutathione-S-transferase (GST); guttation; mollusk; nAChR; neonicotinoids; neurotoxicity; water pollutant acetycholine esterase (AChE); Daphnia magna; dosages; glutathione-S-transferase (GST); guttation; mollusk; nAChR; neonicotinoids; neurotoxicity; water pollutant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mörtl, M.; Vehovszky, Á.; Klátyik, S.; Takács, E.; Győri, J.; Székács, A. Neonicotinoids: Spreading, Translocation and Aquatic Toxicity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2006. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17062006

AMA Style

Mörtl M, Vehovszky Á, Klátyik S, Takács E, Győri J, Székács A. Neonicotinoids: Spreading, Translocation and Aquatic Toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):2006. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17062006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mörtl, Mária, Ágnes Vehovszky, Szandra Klátyik, Eszter Takács, János Győri, and András Székács. 2020. "Neonicotinoids: Spreading, Translocation and Aquatic Toxicity" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 6: 2006. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17062006

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