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Article

Reference Values and Correlations for Multiple Physical Performance Measures: A Cross-Sectional Study among Independently Mobile Older Men in Japan

1
Ishii Orthopaedic & Rehabilitation Clinic, 1089 Shimo-Oshi, Gyoda, Saitama 361-0037, Japan
2
Kanazawa Medical University, School of Plastic Surgery, 1-1 Daigaku Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0253, Japan
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Sado General Hospital, 161 Chikusa Sado, Niigata 952-1209, Japan
4
Niigata University Crisis Management Office, Niigata University Hospital, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1 Asahimachi Dori Niigata, Niigata 951-8520, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2305; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072305
Received: 9 March 2020 / Revised: 27 March 2020 / Accepted: 27 March 2020 / Published: 30 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Aging and Public Health)
Purpose: Japan is one of few countries with a male life expectancy over 80 years. The gap between the healthy life span and the total life expectancy is large, highlighting the importance of maintaining physical performance. The present study aims to establish reference values for multiple physical performance measures among high-functioning oldest-old Japanese men and to investigate the correlations among these measurements to understand how these variables are related. Methods: This study was conducted with 120 Japanese males aged 80 years or older who were able to walk independently. Seven measures of physical performance were assessed: handgrip strength, quadriceps strength, static balance ability (one-legged stance), dynamic balance ability (Functional Reach Test; FRT), walking ability (5-m walking time test), combined movement ability (Timed Up & Go test), and bone quality. Cognitive function was also measured (Mini-Mental State Examination; MMSE). Results: Specific reference values are reported for each physical performance measurement explored in this study. Only six participants were classified as cognitively impaired, and 16 had mild cognitive impairment. There were significant correlations of varying levels among all of the measures of physical performance. Age was significantly correlated with all performance measures except FRT, and there was no correlation between age and MMSE. MMSE was weakly correlated with FRT and unrelated to the other performance measures. Conclusions: The reference ranges can be used by older men who have not yet reached 80 years and their health care providers as physical performance targets to facilitate the maintenance of independent mobility in later life. View Full-Text
Keywords: older men; healthy life span; physical performance; reference value; walking ability; cognitive function older men; healthy life span; physical performance; reference value; walking ability; cognitive function
MDPI and ACS Style

Ishii, Y.; Noguchi, H.; Sato, J.; Ishii, H.; Ishii, R.; Toyabe, S.-i. Reference Values and Correlations for Multiple Physical Performance Measures: A Cross-Sectional Study among Independently Mobile Older Men in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2305. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072305

AMA Style

Ishii Y, Noguchi H, Sato J, Ishii H, Ishii R, Toyabe S-i. Reference Values and Correlations for Multiple Physical Performance Measures: A Cross-Sectional Study among Independently Mobile Older Men in Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2305. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072305

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ishii, Yoshinori, Hideo Noguchi, Junko Sato, Hana Ishii, Ryo Ishii, and Shin-ichi Toyabe. 2020. "Reference Values and Correlations for Multiple Physical Performance Measures: A Cross-Sectional Study among Independently Mobile Older Men in Japan" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2305. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072305

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