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Review

A Specific Inflammatory Profile Underlying Suicide Risk? Systematic Review of the Main Literature Findings

1
Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
2
IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy
3
Mood Disorders Program, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania ’Luigi Vanvitelli’, 80138 Naples, Italy
5
Department of Neurosciences, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, University of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2393; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072393
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers: New Trends in Suicide Prevention)
Consistent evidence indicates the association between inflammatory markers and suicidal behavior. The burden related to immunological differences have been widely documented in both major affective disorders and suicidal behavior. Importantly, abnormally elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines levels have been reported to correlate with suicidal behavior but whether and to what extent specific inflammatory cytokines abnormalities may contribute to our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of suicide is unknown. The present manuscript aimed to systematically review the current literature about the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in suicidal behavior. Most studies showed a link between abnormally higher interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), kynurenic acid (KYN), and lower IL-2, IL-4, and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in specific brain regions and suicidal behavior. Unfortunately, most studies are not able to exclude the exact contribution of major depressive disorder (MDD) as a mediator/moderator of the link between inflammatory cytokines abnormalities and suicidal behavior. The association between suicidal patients (both suicide attempters or those with suicidal ideation) and the altered immune system was documented by most studies, but this does not reflect the existence of a specific causal link. Additional studies are needed to clarify the immune pathways underlying suicidal behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: suicidal behavior; inflammatory cytokines; major depressive disorder; immunological differences; immune pathways suicidal behavior; inflammatory cytokines; major depressive disorder; immunological differences; immune pathways
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MDPI and ACS Style

Serafini, G.; Parisi, V.M.; Aguglia, A.; Amerio, A.; Sampogna, G.; Fiorillo, A.; Pompili, M.; Amore, M. A Specific Inflammatory Profile Underlying Suicide Risk? Systematic Review of the Main Literature Findings. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2393. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072393

AMA Style

Serafini G, Parisi VM, Aguglia A, Amerio A, Sampogna G, Fiorillo A, Pompili M, Amore M. A Specific Inflammatory Profile Underlying Suicide Risk? Systematic Review of the Main Literature Findings. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2393. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072393

Chicago/Turabian Style

Serafini, Gianluca, Valentina M. Parisi, Andrea Aguglia, Andrea Amerio, Gaia Sampogna, Andrea Fiorillo, Maurizio Pompili, and Mario Amore. 2020. "A Specific Inflammatory Profile Underlying Suicide Risk? Systematic Review of the Main Literature Findings" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2393. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072393

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