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Article

Effects of Particulate Matter on the Incidence of Respiratory Diseases in the Pisan Longitudinal Study

1
Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation, National Research Council, 90146 Palermo, Italy
2
Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, 56126 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
4
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region Health Service—ASL Roma 1, 00147 Rome, Italy
5
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene Department, Italian Workers’ Compensation Authority (INAIL), Monte Porzio Catone, 00144 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membership of the BEEP Collaborative Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072540
Received: 24 February 2020 / Revised: 27 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burden of Disease Attributable to Air Pollution)
The current study aimed at assessing the effects of exposure to Particulate Matter (PM) on the incidence of respiratory diseases in a sub-sample of participants in the longitudinal analytical epidemiological study in Pisa, Italy. Three hundred and five subjects living at the same address from 1991 to 2011 were included. Individual risk factors recorded during the 1991 survey were considered, and new cases of respiratory diseases were ascertained until 2011. Average PM10 and PM2.5 exposures (µg/m3, year 2011) were estimated at the residential address (1-km2 resolution) through a random forest machine learning approach, using a combination of satellite data and land use variables. Multivariable logistic regression with Firth’s correction was applied. The median (25th–75th percentile) exposure levels were 30.1 µg/m3 (29.9–30.7 µg/m3) for PM10 and 19.3 µg/m3 (18.9–19.4 µg/m3) for PM2.5. Incidences of rhinitis and chronic phlegm were associated with increasing PM2.5: OR = 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.98) per unit increase (p.u.i.) and OR = 4.17 (1.12, 18.71) p.u.i., respectively. Incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with PM10: OR = 2.96 (1.50, 7.15) p.u.i. These results provide new insights into the long-term respiratory health effects of PM air pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; particulate matter; long-term exposure; random forest; questionnaire; respiratory symptoms/diseases; incidence air pollution; particulate matter; long-term exposure; random forest; questionnaire; respiratory symptoms/diseases; incidence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fasola, S.; Maio, S.; Baldacci, S.; La Grutta, S.; Ferrante, G.; Forastiere, F.; Stafoggia, M.; Gariazzo, C.; Viegi, G.; on behalf of the BEEP Collaborative Group. Effects of Particulate Matter on the Incidence of Respiratory Diseases in the Pisan Longitudinal Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2540. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072540

AMA Style

Fasola S, Maio S, Baldacci S, La Grutta S, Ferrante G, Forastiere F, Stafoggia M, Gariazzo C, Viegi G, on behalf of the BEEP Collaborative Group. Effects of Particulate Matter on the Incidence of Respiratory Diseases in the Pisan Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2540. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072540

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fasola, Salvatore, Sara Maio, Sandra Baldacci, Stefania La Grutta, Giuliana Ferrante, Francesco Forastiere, Massimo Stafoggia, Claudio Gariazzo, Giovanni Viegi, and on behalf of the BEEP Collaborative Group. 2020. "Effects of Particulate Matter on the Incidence of Respiratory Diseases in the Pisan Longitudinal Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2540. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072540

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