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Review

Is Heart Rate a Confounding Factor for Photoplethysmography Markers? A Systematic Review

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Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Centre of Advance Electronic & Communication Engineering (PAKET), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
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Biomedicine Programme, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072591
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 February 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveform is blood volume change of finger microcirculation that reflects vascular function. Reflection index (RI), stiffness index (SI) and second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPPG) are derived from PPG waveforms proposed as cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Heart rate (HR) is a known factor that affects vascular function. Individual resting HR variation may affect RI, SI and SDPPG. This review aims to identify studies about the relationship between HR with RI, SI and SDPPG among humans. A literature search was conducted in Medline via the Ebscohost and Scopus databases to find relevant articles published within 11 years. The main inclusion criteria were articles in the English language that discuss the relationship between HR with RI, SI and SDPPG using PPG among humans. The search found 1960 relevant articles but only six articles that met the inclusion criteria. SI and RI showed an association with HR. SDPPG (SDPPG-b/SDPPG-a ratio, SDPPG-d/SDPPG-a ratio, aging index (AGI) and revised aging index (RAGI)) also had an association with HR. Only RI had a considerable association with HR, the association between SI and HR was non-considerable and the association between HR and SDPPG was inconclusive. Further interventional studies should be conducted to investigate this issue, as a variation in resting HR may challenge the validity of PPG-based CVD markers. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate; cardiovascular disease; photoplethysmography; stiffness index; reflection index; second derivative of photoplethysmography heart rate; cardiovascular disease; photoplethysmography; stiffness index; reflection index; second derivative of photoplethysmography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Md Lazin Md Lazim, M.R.; Aminuddin, A.; Chellappan, K.; Ugusman, A.; Hamid, A.A.; Wan Ahmad, W.A.N.; Mohamad, M.S.F. Is Heart Rate a Confounding Factor for Photoplethysmography Markers? A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072591

AMA Style

Md Lazin Md Lazim MR, Aminuddin A, Chellappan K, Ugusman A, Hamid AA, Wan Ahmad WAN, Mohamad MSF. Is Heart Rate a Confounding Factor for Photoplethysmography Markers? A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072591

Chicago/Turabian Style

Md Lazin Md Lazim, Md R., Amilia Aminuddin, Kalaivani Chellappan, Azizah Ugusman, Adila A. Hamid, Wan A.N. Wan Ahmad, and Mohd S.F. Mohamad 2020. "Is Heart Rate a Confounding Factor for Photoplethysmography Markers? A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072591

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