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Article

Association between Passive Smoking from the Mother and Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Japanese Multicenter Study

1
Laboratory of International Environmental Health, Center for International Cooperation, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan
2
Department of Public Health, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan
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Department of Health and Nutrition, University of Human Arts and Sciences, Saitama 339-8539, Japan
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Research Institute of Clinical and Social Pharmacy, Saitama 341-0035, Japan
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Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Miyagi Children’s Hospital, Miyagi 989-3126, Japan
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Department of Pediatrics, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma 371-8511, Japan
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Department of Pediatrics, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka 558-8558, Japan
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Department of Gastrointestinal and Pediatric Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507, Japan
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Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University Kashiwa Hospital, Chiba 277-8567, Japan
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St. Mary’s College, Fukuoka 830-8558, Japan
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Musashino University, School of Human Sciences, Tokyo 202-8585, Japan
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Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
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Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Nursing and Health, Aichi Prefectural University, Aichi 480-1198, Japan
14
Department of Public Health, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased 14 February 2020.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2926; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082926
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 14 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 23 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children's Environmental Health)
Smoking is a risk factor for adult-onset Crohn’s disease (CD). Although passive smoking from family members is a major concern, especially in pediatric CD, the number of existing epidemiological studies is limited. This multicenter case–control study aimed to assess the effects of familial smoking on pediatric CD. We examined 22 pediatric CD cases and 135 controls. The subjects’ mothers were given a self-administered questionnaire about family smoking before disease onset in the CD group or the corresponding period in the control group. Univariable logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), whereas dose–response relationship analyses were performed for more in-depth evaluations. Univariable analyses indicated that passive smoking from the mother (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.61–7.10) was not a significant, but a candidate risk factor for developing pediatric CD. In contrast, the dose–response relationship analyses revealed that passive smoking from the mother (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04–1.31) was significantly associated with pediatric CD. Therefore, passive smoking from the mother may be predominantly associated with the development of pediatric CD. Further follow-up studies comprising environmental measurements of passive smoking exposure doses and genetic factors interaction analysis are necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: dose-response relationship; epidemiology; maternal smoking; passive smoking; pediatric Crohn’s disease dose-response relationship; epidemiology; maternal smoking; passive smoking; pediatric Crohn’s disease
MDPI and ACS Style

Uchiyama, K.; Haruyama, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Katahira, K.; Abukawa, D.; Ishige, T.; Tajiri, H.; Uchida, K.; Uchiyama, K.; Washio, M.; Kobashi, E.; Maekawa, A.; Okamoto, K.; Sairenchi, T.; Imamura, Y.; Ohhira, S.; Hata, A.; Kobashi, G. Association between Passive Smoking from the Mother and Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Japanese Multicenter Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2926. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082926

AMA Style

Uchiyama K, Haruyama Y, Shiraishi H, Katahira K, Abukawa D, Ishige T, Tajiri H, Uchida K, Uchiyama K, Washio M, Kobashi E, Maekawa A, Okamoto K, Sairenchi T, Imamura Y, Ohhira S, Hata A, Kobashi G. Association between Passive Smoking from the Mother and Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Japanese Multicenter Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(8):2926. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082926

Chicago/Turabian Style

Uchiyama, Koji, Yasuo Haruyama, Hiromi Shiraishi, Kiyohiko Katahira, Daiki Abukawa, Takashi Ishige, Hitoshi Tajiri, Keiichi Uchida, Kan Uchiyama, Masakazu Washio, Erika Kobashi, Atsuko Maekawa, Kazushi Okamoto, Toshimi Sairenchi, Yuka Imamura, Shuji Ohhira, Akira Hata, and Gen Kobashi. 2020. "Association between Passive Smoking from the Mother and Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Japanese Multicenter Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 8: 2926. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082926

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