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Review

High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF) in Healthy, Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

1
Movement Behaviours, Health and Wellbeing Research Group, Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, Lancashire L39 4QP, UK
2
Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland Lanarkshire Campus Lanarkshire, Scotland G72 0LH, UK
3
Centre for Health and Exercise Science Research, Department of Sport, Physical Education and Health, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China
4
School of Health & Life Sciences, Federation University, Mt Helen, Ballarat, VIC 3350, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2955; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082955
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 17 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interventions to Enhance Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children)
Background: High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a sustainable and effective method for improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF) in adolescents. HIIT is proven to produce equal or greater improvements in CRF when compared to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in adolescents. Methods: The studies included were considered eligible if: (1) Participants were adolescents (11–18 years old); (2) Examined changes in CRF measured either directly or indirectly; (3) Included a non-exercising control group or MICE comparison group; (4) Participants were matched at enrolment; (5) Reported HIIT protocol information; (6) Provided HIIT intensity. A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of HIIT on CRF. Meta-regression and moderator analyses were performed out to quantitatively examine moderators of protocol design on CRF improvements. Results: HIIT displays a moderate effect to improve CRF (g = 0.86, 95% CI 0.518–1.106, p < 0.001). Neither study duration (weeks), nor total or weekly accumulated HIIT volume (min) displayed any significant moderation effect on pooled improvement on CRF (p > 0.05). Conclusions: HIIT is an effective method to improve CRF in adolescents, irrespective of body composition. Notably, meta regression analysis identified that prolonged high volume HIIT programs are similarly effective to short term low volume HIIT programs. This becomes of particular interest for those involved in school curricula, where short HIIT exercise may provide a pragmatic adjunct to the health benefits of Physical Education (PE) lessons. View Full-Text
Keywords: high intensity interval training; cardiorespiratory fitness; adolescents high intensity interval training; cardiorespiratory fitness; adolescents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martin-Smith, R.; Cox, A.; Buchan, D.S.; Baker, J.S.; Grace, F.; Sculthorpe, N. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF) in Healthy, Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2955. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082955

AMA Style

Martin-Smith R, Cox A, Buchan DS, Baker JS, Grace F, Sculthorpe N. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF) in Healthy, Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(8):2955. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082955

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martin-Smith, Rhona, Ashley Cox, Duncan S. Buchan, Julien S. Baker, Fergal Grace, and Nicholas Sculthorpe. 2020. "High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF) in Healthy, Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 8: 2955. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082955

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