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Article

Chronic Disease, the Built Environment, and Unequal Health Risks in the 500 Largest U.S. Cities

1
Department of Sociology and Criminology, University of Arkansas-Fayetteville, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
2
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Arkansas-Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2961; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082961
Received: 2 April 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
Health is increasingly subject to the complex interplay between the built environment, population composition, and the structured inequity in access to health-related resources across communities. The primary objective of this paper was to examine cardiometabolic disease (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke) markers and their prevalence across relatively small geographic units in the 500 largest cities in the United States. Using data from the American Community Survey and the 500 Cities Project, the current study examined cardiometabolic diseases across 27,000+ census tracts in the 500 largest cities in the United States. Earlier works clearly show cardiometabolic diseases are not randomly distributed across the geography of the U.S., but rather concentrated primarily in Southern and Eastern regions of the U.S. Our results confirm that chronic disease is correlated with social and built environment factors. Specifically, racial concentration (%, Black), age concentration (% 65+), housing stock age, median home value, structural inequality (Gini index), and weight status (% overweight/obese) were consistent correlates (p < 0.01) of cardiometabolic diseases in the sample of census tracts. The paper examines policy-related features of the built and social environment and how they might play a role in shaping the health and well-being of America’s metropolises. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic disease; place and health; cardiometabolic disease; structural inequality chronic disease; place and health; cardiometabolic disease; structural inequality
MDPI and ACS Style

Fitzpatrick, K.M.; Willis, D. Chronic Disease, the Built Environment, and Unequal Health Risks in the 500 Largest U.S. Cities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2961. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082961

AMA Style

Fitzpatrick KM, Willis D. Chronic Disease, the Built Environment, and Unequal Health Risks in the 500 Largest U.S. Cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(8):2961. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082961

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fitzpatrick, Kevin M., and Don Willis. 2020. "Chronic Disease, the Built Environment, and Unequal Health Risks in the 500 Largest U.S. Cities" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 8: 2961. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082961

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