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Article

Application of Process Intensification in the Treatment of Pit Latrine Sludge from Informal Settlements in Blantyre City, Malawi

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Department of Environmental Health, University of Malawi, Faculty of Applied Sciences, P/Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, 312225, Malawi
2
Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, University of Malawi, Faculty of Applied Sciences, P/Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, 312225, Malawi
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malawi, Faculty of Engineering, P/Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, 312225, Malawi
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093296
Received: 8 March 2020 / Revised: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 9 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Many developing countries lack the infrastructure needed for the treatment of fecal sludge. One limitation in implementing available treatment options is the limited availability of land in the urban areas of these countries. This paper investigated the application of process intensification as a way of reducing the land area required to dewater and sanitize pit latrine sludge from informal settlements in Blantyre City, Malawi. The intensification of the sludge treatment process was achieved by enhancing dewatering through the application of additives and by combining the dewatering and sanitization stages. Nine combinations of sludge, lime and rice husk dosages, in addition to a control, were simultaneously loaded on unplanted drying bed units to dewater for 29 days. The study found a significant reduction of 21% to 73% in the land area required to dewater and sanitize pit latrine sludge. From the study, process intensification was shown to have the potential to significantly reduce the land area required to dewater and sanitize pit latrine sludge from informal settlements in Malawi cities. This makes it an option that can be implemented close to informal settlements, despite land limitation in these areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: dewatering and sanitization; unplanted drying bed; sludge dewatering cycle time; sludge solids loading rate; sustainable sanitation dewatering and sanitization; unplanted drying bed; sludge dewatering cycle time; sludge solids loading rate; sustainable sanitation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalulu, K.; Thole, B.; Mkandawire, T.; Kululanga, G. Application of Process Intensification in the Treatment of Pit Latrine Sludge from Informal Settlements in Blantyre City, Malawi. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093296

AMA Style

Kalulu K, Thole B, Mkandawire T, Kululanga G. Application of Process Intensification in the Treatment of Pit Latrine Sludge from Informal Settlements in Blantyre City, Malawi. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(9):3296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093296

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalulu, Khumbo, Bernard Thole, Theresa Mkandawire, and Grant Kululanga. 2020. "Application of Process Intensification in the Treatment of Pit Latrine Sludge from Informal Settlements in Blantyre City, Malawi" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 9: 3296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093296

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