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Review

Gender Differences and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease

1
Internal Medicine Department, Lagonegro Hospital, 85042 Lagonegro (PZ), Italy
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Rivoli Hospital, 10098 Rivoli (TO), Italy
3
Department of Internal Medicine, ASL 4 Chiavarese, Sestri Levante Hospital, 16039 Sestri Levante (GE), Italy
4
Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Geriatrics Sciences, Marcianise Hospital, ASL Caserta, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, 81025 Naples, Italy
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Veneziale Hospital, 86170 Isernia, Italy
6
ASL Bari, 70023 Bari, Italy
7
Health Technology Assessment Committee, University Hospital G. Rodolico, 95123 Catania, Italy
8
Department of Medical, Surgical and Advanced Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
9
Department of General Surgery and Medical-Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share first authorship.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010198
Received: 4 November 2020 / Revised: 5 December 2020 / Accepted: 26 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Quality of Life and Chronic Diseases: A Call to Action)
Parkinson’s disease has been found to significantly affect health-related quality of life. The gender differences of the health-related quality of life of subjects with Parkinson’s disease have been observed in a number of studies. These differences have been reported in terms of the age at onset, clinical manifestations, and response to therapy. In general, women with Parkinson’s disease showed more positive disease outcomes with regard to emotion processing, non-motor symptoms, and cognitive functions, although women report more Parkinson’s disease-related clinical manifestations. Female gender predicted poor physical functioning and socioemotional health-related quality of life, while male gender predicted the cognitive domain of health-related quality of life. Some studies reported gender differences in the association between health-related quality of life and non-motor symptoms. Depression and fatigue were the main causes of poorer health-related quality of life in women, even in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease. The aim of this review was to collect the best available evidence on gender differences in the development of Parkinson’s disease symptoms and health-related quality of life. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; gender; dopamine; levodopa; quality of life Parkinson’s disease; gender; dopamine; levodopa; quality of life
MDPI and ACS Style

Crispino, P.; Gino, M.; Barbagelata, E.; Ciarambino, T.; Politi, C.; Ambrosino, I.; Ragusa, R.; Marranzano, M.; Biondi, A.; Vacante, M. Gender Differences and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010198

AMA Style

Crispino P, Gino M, Barbagelata E, Ciarambino T, Politi C, Ambrosino I, Ragusa R, Marranzano M, Biondi A, Vacante M. Gender Differences and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crispino, Pietro, Miriam Gino, Elena Barbagelata, Tiziana Ciarambino, Cecilia Politi, Immacolata Ambrosino, Rosalia Ragusa, Marina Marranzano, Antonio Biondi, and Marco Vacante. 2021. "Gender Differences and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 1: 198. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010198

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