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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 18, Issue 10 (May-2 2021) – 454 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study explored how men coped and recovered following a suicide attempt. The men’s lives were significantly affected by the attempt, with some stating that they had changed as a person. The findings provide insights into how men cope with suicidal thoughts or negative emotions, often avoiding seeking help and suppressing their emotions. Importantly, the findings indicate that men do recognise that they need help and can be receptive to help but can feel that they need to be approached in the first instance. This offers an encouraging potential opportunity for support networks and clinical services that are caring for vulnerable men. View this paper.
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Article
The Mood-Improving Effect of Viewing Images of Nature and Its Neural Substrate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5500; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105500 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1172
Abstract
It has been recently suggested that contact with nature improves mood via reducing the activity of the prefrontal cortex. However, the specific regions within the prefrontal cortex that underlie this effect remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the specific regions [...] Read more.
It has been recently suggested that contact with nature improves mood via reducing the activity of the prefrontal cortex. However, the specific regions within the prefrontal cortex that underlie this effect remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the specific regions involved in the mood-improving effect of viewing images of nature using a 52-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Specifically, we focused on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), two regions associated with affective processing and control. In a randomized controlled crossover experiment, we assigned thirty young adults to view images of nature and built environments for three minutes each in a counterbalanced order. During image viewing, participants wore a fNIRS probe cap and had their oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) measured. Immediately following each image viewing, participants indicated their mood in terms of comfortableness, relaxation, and vigor. Results showed that viewing images of nature significantly increased comfortableness and relaxation but not vigor compared to viewing images of built environments, with a large effect size. Meanwhile, the concentration of oxy-Hb in only the right OFC and none of the other regions significantly decreased while viewing the images of nature compared to built environments, with a medium effect size. We speculate that viewing images of nature improves mood by reducing the activity of or calming the OFC. Since the OFC is hyperactive in patients with depression and anxiety at rest, contact with nature might have therapeutic effects for them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nature-Based Therapies and Human Health)
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Article
A Single Session of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation Increases Muscle Strength, Endurance and proNGF in Early Parkinson Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105499 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, being unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally, due to physical and mental limitations. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of a single session of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the physical [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, being unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally, due to physical and mental limitations. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of a single session of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the physical performances and serum levels of the neurotrophic factors in PD patients. Ten subjects (aged 72.60 ± 6.82) underwent 20 min of physical activity with superimposed WB-EMS and, after four weeks, the same protocol with no WB-EMS. WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation, with 4 s WB-EMS/4 s rest, at 85 Hz, 350 μs. A physical fitness assessment and blood samples collection, to evaluate neurotrophic factors’ levels (BDNF, FGF21, proNGF, mNGF), were collected before and after the intervention. The RM-ANOVA showed significant improvements in sit-to-stand (p < 0.01), arm curl (p < 0.01), handgrip (p < 0.01) and soda pop test (p < 0.01) after the WB-EMS intervention. Higher proNFG serum levels were observed in the WB-EMS condition compared to the no WB-EMS after 60 min post-intervention (p = 0.0163). The effect of WB-EMS confirmed the electrostimulation ability to modulate the proNGF quantity. The positive impact of the WB-EMS protocol on physical functioning, and eye–hand coordination, makes this intervention a promising strategy to improve motor and non-motor symptoms in PD patients. Full article
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Article
Effects of Student Training in Social Skills and Emotional Intelligence on the Behaviour and Coexistence of Adolescents in the 21st Century
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5498; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105498 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 930
Abstract
In recent decades, efforts have been made to achieve a positive coexistence among adolescents in secondary schools and create a healthy environment to prepare them to face the present-day challenges. Therefore, this study highlights the educational purpose of improving emotional management and social [...] Read more.
In recent decades, efforts have been made to achieve a positive coexistence among adolescents in secondary schools and create a healthy environment to prepare them to face the present-day challenges. Therefore, this study highlights the educational purpose of improving emotional management and social skills as well as decreasing antisocial and criminal behaviour among secondary education students through an educational training programme. Accordingly, to verify the effectiveness of the project, a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test/post-test structure and a control group was adopted. To achieve this, a total of 141 Spanish secondary school students participated in this study and were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions. The first (experimental) group (n = 55) participated in the training programme; correspondingly, the second group (control) (n = 57) followed the usual mentoring activities planned for the entire educational centre. Of the total number of participants, 52.7% of the sample were men and 47.3% were women. The mean age of the participants was 13.01 years old (SD = 0.935). The results showed improvements in the environment with adequate training and the correct application of a programme involving emotional intelligence (EI) among secondary education students. Furthermore, a decrease in conflicts and enhanced relations between the members of the educational community was evidenced. Finally, the practical implications for improving coexistence in secondary schools are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Regulation and Mental Health)
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Article
Effects of a Short Emotional Management Program on Inpatients with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105497 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 827
Abstract
The prevalence of schizophrenia is gradually increasing worldwide. Many patients with schizophrenia have a diminished ability to empathize and to detect their own emotions or those of others, deteriorating their social functioning and their quality of life. Nonetheless, emotional management training may improve [...] Read more.
The prevalence of schizophrenia is gradually increasing worldwide. Many patients with schizophrenia have a diminished ability to empathize and to detect their own emotions or those of others, deteriorating their social functioning and their quality of life. Nonetheless, emotional management training may improve patients’ emotion recognition, emotional expression, and negative symptoms. Developing and applying a short but effective program that reflects the current medical environment, in which hospital stays are ever-diminishing, is warranted. This one-group, pretest–posttest, quasi-experimental pilot study aimed to examine the effects of a short emotional management program (EMP-S) on 17 patients with chronic schizophrenia. Participants were patients hospitalized in the National Center for Mental Health in Korea. After the completion of a twice-a-week, eight-session, four-week long EMP-S, participants showed improvements in emotion recognition, emotional expression, and negative symptoms. Our results suggest the applicability and potential effectiveness of the EMP-S, which takes the length of psychiatric hospital stay and the inpatient environment into consideration. To minimize any barriers to social functioning in the post-discharge lives of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and enhance their social cognition—by improving their emotion recognition, emotional expression, and negative symptoms—we suggest the periodical administration of this EMP-S to these inpatients. Full article
Systematic Review
The Health Impacts of Hazardous Chemical Exposures among Child Labourers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5496; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105496 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Of 218 million working children worldwide, many are suspected to be exposed to hazardous chemicals. This review aims to synthesize reported evidence over the last two decades on chemical exposure and adverse health consequences in children labourers in low- and middle-income Countries (LMIC). [...] Read more.
Of 218 million working children worldwide, many are suspected to be exposed to hazardous chemicals. This review aims to synthesize reported evidence over the last two decades on chemical exposure and adverse health consequences in children labourers in low- and middle-income Countries (LMIC). Included studies investigated health outcomes related to chemical exposures among child labourers aged 5–18 in LMIC. Twenty-three papers were selected for review, focusing on pesticides (n = 5), solvents (n = 3), metals (n = 13) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (n = 2). Adverse health effects identified among child labourers included abnormal biomarkers, for example elevated blood and urine chemical concentrations, neurobehavioural deficits and neurological symptoms, mental health issues, oxidative stress and DNA damage, poor growth, asthma, and hypothyroidism. Workplace exposure to chemicals has pernicious health effects on child labourers. Large research gaps exist, in particular for long-term health impacts through chronic conditions and diseases with long latencies. A sizeable disease burden in later life is likely to be directly attributable to chemicals exposures. We urge national and international agencies concerned with child labour and occupational health, to prioritize research and interventions aiming to reduce noxious chemical exposures in workplaces where children are likely to be present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Labour, Working Children and Health)
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Article
Bone Mineral Density and Hemoglobin Levels: Opposite Associations in Younger and Older Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5495; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105495 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 738
Abstract
This cross-sectional, retrospective medical record review study aimed to investigate the association between hemoglobin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in adult women. Medical records obtained from general health examinations conducted from June 2014 to July 2020 at a regional hospital in southern [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional, retrospective medical record review study aimed to investigate the association between hemoglobin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in adult women. Medical records obtained from general health examinations conducted from June 2014 to July 2020 at a regional hospital in southern Taiwan were reviewed. Anthropometric and laboratory data were recorded. BMD of the lumbar spine and bilateral femoral neck regions was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between BMD and hemoglobin level with and without adjusting for other anthropometric and laboratory data. The study included 9606 female patients with a mean age of 55.9 years. Of these, 2756 (28.7%) were aged ≤ 50 years and 6850 (71.3%) were aged > 50 years. Results from multiple linear regression analysis showed that hemoglobin and femoral and lumbar spine BMD were significantly correlated. A higher hemoglobin level was significantly associated with a lower BMD level in females aged ≤ 50 years, but with a higher BMD level in those aged > 50 years. Given the relationship between bone metabolism and hematopoiesis, additional research is needed to elucidate the association between hemoglobin and BMD levels in different age groups, particularly in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. Full article
Article
Validity and Reliability of a Novel Instrument for the Measurement of Subtalar Joint Axis of Rotation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105494 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 879
Abstract
Inclination of the subtalar joint (STJ) in the sagittal and transverse planes may be highly associated with ankle pathology. However, the validity and reliability of measuring the inclination of the STJ axis of rotation (AoR) is not well established. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Inclination of the subtalar joint (STJ) in the sagittal and transverse planes may be highly associated with ankle pathology. However, the validity and reliability of measuring the inclination of the STJ axis of rotation (AoR) is not well established. This study aimed to develop a custom-made STJ locator (STJL) and evaluate its reliability and validity. To establish the reliability and validity of the measurement device for STJ AoR, 38 healthy male participants were recruited. For the reliability analysis, test–retest was used, and for validity analysis, Pearson’s correlation and Bland–Altman plot analyses were performed. In the reliability analysis of the STJL, a higher correlation was observed with the sagittal plane (0.930) and transverse plane (0.748) (standard error of measurement: 0.56–0.78; minimal detectable difference: 1.57–2.16). In the validity analysis between radiography and STJL, a significantly higher value of 0.798 was obtained with radiography (42.5) and STJL (43.5) with the sagittal plane. The custom-made STJL may be used in the clinical setting as its validity and intraclass correlation coefficient were high, indicating consistent measurements. Further studies including motion analysis are necessary to provide more information regarding the relationship between STJ AoR inclinations and STJ movements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Sports Injury)
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Article
Effects of Tele-Rehabilitation Compared with Home-Based in-Person Rehabilitation for Older Adult’s Function after Hip Fracture
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5493; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105493 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the effect of a multidisciplinary tele-rehabilitation program on functional recovery of older adults with hip fracture compared with home-based in-person rehabilitation. In this single-blinded, non-randomized clinical trial, we included older with hip fracture. The tele-rehabilitation group received a [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the effect of a multidisciplinary tele-rehabilitation program on functional recovery of older adults with hip fracture compared with home-based in-person rehabilitation. In this single-blinded, non-randomized clinical trial, we included older with hip fracture. The tele-rehabilitation group received a 12-week tele-rehabilitation program (supervised by their family caregivers). The control group received the usual postoperative rehabilitation provided by the Andalusian health system (Spain). The primary outcome was the patient-reported functional status assessed with the Functional Independence Measure. We also measured performance-based functional recovery using the Timed Up and Go Test and Short Physical Performance Battery. We performed both a per-protocol (62 participants; 28 tele-rehabilitation and 34 control groups) and an intention-to-treat analysis (71 participants; 35 tele-rehabilitation and 36 control groups). Participants who used the tele-rehabilitation program had higher Functional Independence Measure scores (high effect size: 0.98 Cohen’s d; p < 0.001) and better performance in the Timed Up and Go Test (medium effect size: 0.63 Cohen’s d; p = 0.025) compared with the control group. Differences between groups post-intervention were not statistically significant in the Short Physical Performance Battery. The tele-rehabilitation intervention proposed in this study is a valuable treatment option in the recovery process for older adults with hip fracture. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02968589. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies, Rehabilitation and Health)
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Article
Shift Work and Dry Eye Disease in the Korean Working Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105492 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 977
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the association between shift work and dry eye disease (DED) in the general population. The 2011 Korea Health Panel (KHP) was used. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between shift work and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the association between shift work and dry eye disease (DED) in the general population. The 2011 Korea Health Panel (KHP) was used. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between shift work and DED. Stratification analysis was conducted by sex and age. Overall, the odds ratio (OR) of DED according to shift work did not showed significant results (adjusted OR = 1.230, 95% CI 0.758–1.901). When findings were stratified based on age older or younger than 40 years, the OR of DED increased to 2.85 (95% CI: 1.25–5.90) in shift workers under 40 years of age. Our results show an association between shift work and DED in a group of younger subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects and Management of Shift Work)
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Review
The Relationship between Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence as a Protective Factor for Healthcare Professionals: Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5491; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105491 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Emotional intelligence is an essential trait and skill for healthcare professionals. Mindfulness meditation has proved to be effective in increasing the wellbeing of those who practice it, leading to better mental health, self-care and job satisfaction. This paper aims to identify the recent [...] Read more.
Emotional intelligence is an essential trait and skill for healthcare professionals. Mindfulness meditation has proved to be effective in increasing the wellbeing of those who practice it, leading to better mental health, self-care and job satisfaction. This paper aims to identify the recent evidence on the relationship between mindfulness and emotional intelligence among healthcare professionals and students. A systematic review was conducted including the databases PubMed, Cinhal, PsycINFO and Web of Science. The main variables were emotional intelligence skills and mindfulness practice. Data were extracted according to the following outcomes: authors, year of publication, country, study design, participants, mindfulness training intervention, tools used in data collection and main results. The following inclusion criteria were applied: peer-reviewed articles; published in English or Spanish; published between 2010 and 2020; quantitative methodology; a study population of healthcare professionals or students; the relationship with the aim of the study. The Joanna Briggs Institute criteria were followed for assessing the methodological quality of the selected studies. Three researchers were involved in the review. After the selection process, 10 studies were selected out of the 197 references initially identified. These studies revealed a positive relationship between mindfulness and emotional intelligence, particularly the capacity to regulate emotions. Furthermore, mindfulness is negatively related to emotional exhaustion. Training interventions based on mindfulness have proved to be useful in promoting emotional balance, emotional awareness, emotional acceptance, emotion recognition, expressive suppression and a reduction in emotional exhaustion. This study could serve as a basis for further research on the benefits of emotional intelligence and practicing mindfulness for the bio-psycho-social welfare of healthcare professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention of Occupational Risks)
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Article
Trajectories of Body Height, Body Weight, BMI, and Nutrition Status from 1979 to 1987: A Measurement-Based Analysis of 8740 Montenegrin Male Adolescents from the Municipality of Berane
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5490; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105490 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 840
Abstract
This study aimed to consolidate the body height, body weight, BMI, and nutrition status data of the overall young male population from the Municipality of Berane in order to assess the trajectories of those variables from 1979 to 1987. The sample of respondents [...] Read more.
This study aimed to consolidate the body height, body weight, BMI, and nutrition status data of the overall young male population from the Municipality of Berane in order to assess the trajectories of those variables from 1979 to 1987. The sample of respondents included 8740 adolescents who were divided into nine groups according to their age. The sample of variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, and nutrition status, which were presented based on a long-established BMI categorization (underweight, normal weight, pre-obese, and obese). The descriptive statistics are expressed as the mean and standard deviation for each variable; the analysis of nutrition status was calculated based on BMI, while LSD post hoc testing with ANOVA was employed to investigate differences between the means. The results indicate that a secular trend is visible regarding body height and body weight, while no trend is visible for the BMI and nutrition status. This study’s contribution is that it provides insight into more recently published data for the studied period and in this municipality, which can significantly aid in following the secular trend throughout Montenegro. Full article
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Article
What Do Childcare Providers Know about Environmental Influences on Children’s Health? Implications for Environmental Health Literacy Efforts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105489 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Children are uniquely vulnerable to toxicant exposures in their environment, which can have long-lasting impacts on their health. Childcare providers are an important population to target for environmental health literacy, as most children in the United States under five years of age spend [...] Read more.
Children are uniquely vulnerable to toxicant exposures in their environment, which can have long-lasting impacts on their health. Childcare providers are an important population to target for environmental health literacy, as most children in the United States under five years of age spend a significant number of waking hours in non-parental care. There is an increasing body of evidence that children are exposed to toxicants in the childcare environment, and yet little is known about what childcare providers know about environmental influences on the health of children in their care. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 home- and center-based Illinois childcare providers to better understand their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors as they relate to environmental influences on children’s health. We found that the majority of providers had a low level of understanding of potential sources of exposure in the childcare environment, and they did not feel that environmental exposures posed a significant risk to children. Future efforts to increase environmental health literacy should focus on raising awareness and knowledge of environmental health issues for childcare providers before addressing ways that providers can reduce or prevent toxicant exposures to children in their care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Literacy and Equity)
Review
Prevalence of Orthorexia Nervosa and Its Diagnostic Tools—A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5488; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105488 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
The aim of this article is to present the up-to-date diagnostic tools of orthorexia and markers of its prevalence on the basis of the available literature. The authors searched PubMedCentral (PMC) and Google Scholar with the search entry of “orthorexia”, “orthorexia nervosa”, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to present the up-to-date diagnostic tools of orthorexia and markers of its prevalence on the basis of the available literature. The authors searched PubMedCentral (PMC) and Google Scholar with the search entry of “orthorexia”, “orthorexia nervosa”, and “orthorexicbehaviours”. We describe the tools of evaluation of orthorexicbehaviour (i.e., orthorexia self-test—BOT, the ORTO-15 questionnaire, Eating Habits Questionnaire—EHQ, Düsseldorf Orthorexia Scale—DOS, Teruel Orthorexia Scale—TOS, Barcelona Orthorexia Scale—BOS, and Orthorexia Nervosa Inventory—ONI), and offer a review of the studies on orthorexia nervosa. We conclude that there are no reliable data regarding the prevalence of orthorexia nervosa. The available studies point to significant differences in the prevalence depending on the value of cut-off points and tools used. The prevalence varies across countries and across populations, ranging from 6.9% in the Italian population to 88.7% in the group of Brazilian students of dieting. Thus, it indicates that some groups seem to be susceptible to the risk of ON more than others. It is a challenge to determine the prevalence of orthorexia, and any obtained results should be treated with caution. Consequently, we claim that the use of the ORTO-15 questionnaire to diagnose orthorexia is questionable due to a high percentage of falsely positive results. Full article
Article
4BR: Educational Training Programme for the Prevention of Sports Injuries in Young Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105487 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 838
Abstract
This article provides a vision of the importance of the recovery process for the prevention of injuries in young athletes. From a sports psychology perspective, it presents a proposal for an optimisation programme to reduce the negative impact of exertion and subsequent risk [...] Read more.
This article provides a vision of the importance of the recovery process for the prevention of injuries in young athletes. From a sports psychology perspective, it presents a proposal for an optimisation programme to reduce the negative impact of exertion and subsequent risk of injury. The 4BR programme consists of three sub-programmes (technician advice, vulnerability detection, and the implementation of four recovery habit blocks). An interdisciplinary approach is taken to configure the four healthy blocks: nutrition–hydration, relaxation–rest, social life and personal moments. It demonstrates the importance of personalised adaptation to the sports context and moment in order to achieve maximum effectiveness of the proposed 4BR programme, which comprises workshops, exercises, evaluation systems and information feedback. The presented programme facilitates recovery, optimizes the return to training and reduces the risk of intrinsic injuries in young people. The conclusion drawn from the study is that there is a need to conduct further research to find empirical evidence of the positive effects of applying the 4BR programme to different sports. Full article
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Article
Fecundability and Sterility by Age: Estimates Using Time to Pregnancy Data of Japanese Couples Trying to Conceive Their First Child with and without Fertility Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105486 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Fecundability, the probability of conception in a month or in a menstrual cycle, varies across and within age groups for both women and men. Fertility treatment has become common in a number of countries including Japan, but its impact on the age pattern [...] Read more.
Fecundability, the probability of conception in a month or in a menstrual cycle, varies across and within age groups for both women and men. Fertility treatment has become common in a number of countries including Japan, but its impact on the age pattern of fecundability is unknown. By utilizing the previously collected data on time to pregnancy (TTP) of Japanese couples trying to conceive their first child, the present study aimed to estimate fecundability and sterility by women’s age and to assess how the estimates may differ by including or excluding assisted conceptions. Duration between discontinuing contraception and conception (including both natural and assisted) resulted in a live birth was called TTP-all, and the duration ending with natural conception was called TTP-natural. TTP-natural was censored when a participant received fertility consultation or treatment. A zero-inflated beta distribution model was used to estimate a proportion of sterile (zero probability of conception) and a distribution of fecundability for each age group. Parameters of the distribution were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. When TTP-all and TTP-natural were used, the sterile proportion of the whole sample was, respectively, 2% and 14%, and the median (interquartile range) of fecundability was, respectively, 0.10 (0.04, 0.19) and 0.11 (0.05, 0.19). The median (interquartile range) of fecundability was 0.18 (0.10, 0.29) for women aged 24 years or younger and 0.05 (0.02, 0.13) for 35–39 years old when TTP-all was used, and the estimates were quite similar with those based on TTP-natural: it was 0.18 (0.10, 0.29) for women aged 24 years or younger and 0.06 (0.00, 0.15) for 35–39 years old. Exclusion of assisted conceptions resulted in larger proportions of sterility, but it had little impact on median or interquartile ranges of fecundability estimates. Fecundability is overall lower at higher ages, while interquartile ranges are overlapping, suggesting that inter-individual variability of fecundability within an age group is as large as the variability across age groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environment and Reproductive Health: Feature Papers)
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Brief Report
The Impact of COVID-19 on Canada’s Food Literacy: Results of a Cross-National Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5485; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105485 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Several studies of food literacy emphasise the acquisition of critical knowledge over context. This evaluation looks at how COVID-19 impacted food literacy in a country affected by the global pandemic. To our knowledge, there has been no systematic research that would allow a [...] Read more.
Several studies of food literacy emphasise the acquisition of critical knowledge over context. This evaluation looks at how COVID-19 impacted food literacy in a country affected by the global pandemic. To our knowledge, there has been no systematic research that would allow a better understanding of the impact of uncertainty or enhanced perceived risks generated by a global crisis on the prevalence of household food literacy. This study looks at food literacy from a perceptive of how an event that has domesticated many of them can alter knowledge and the relationship people have with food. A cross-national survey including 10,004 Canadians was conducted ten months after the start of the pandemic. Results show that Canadians have learned new recipes. Canadians have also taken up gardening and have relied on several sources to gather information. This study provides some evidence that Canadians have become more food literate because of the COVID-19 pandemic, but less significantly than anticipated. Practical and policy implications are presented as well as some future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Evaluation of Public Health)
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Article
The Impact of Pandemic Management on the Quality of Life of Slovak Dentists
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5484; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105484 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Pandemic management increases the burden on healthcare workers to provide care and also affects their personal lives, with dentists being at particular risk. Therefore, we aim to describe the quality of life (QoL) and limitations experienced due to pandemic management-related measures (PanMan), as [...] Read more.
Pandemic management increases the burden on healthcare workers to provide care and also affects their personal lives, with dentists being at particular risk. Therefore, we aim to describe the quality of life (QoL) and limitations experienced due to pandemic management-related measures (PanMan), as well as to assess the association of PanMan with QoL during the first lockdown after the coronavirus outbreak. We obtained data from 500 dentists (33.2% males, M/SD = 43.8) registered with the Slovak Chamber of Dentists using an online questionnaire. We categorized PanMan as the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and the ability to implement anti-pandemic measures, information overload, pandemic-related limitations and QoL in terms of their impact on family life and activities, housekeeping, relationships with relatives, financial situation and mental well-being. PanMan mainly affected financial situation, mental well-being and housekeeping. Factors contributing most towards the worsening of QoL were information overload (odds ratio/95% confidence interval, OR/CI: 5.79/2.64–12.71) and several pandemic-related limitations. These consisted of (OR/CI): a lack of PPE (5.17/2.48–10.77), infection risks in the work environment (3.06/1.57–5.95), obligatory safety measures (3.02/1.47–6.21), lack of staff (2.85/1.30–6.25) and client concerns (3.56/1.70–7.49). Pandemic management has led to a considerable worsening of dentists’ QoL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemics: Impact on Health Care and Health Care Professions)
Article
Social Comparison and Stress Appraisal in Women with Chronic Illness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105483 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
(1) Background: The present study examined how social comparison orientation, stress appraisal and different social comparison strategies interact in women facing chronic illness. (2) Methods: Assessments were conducted by a trained professional in face-to face semistructured interviews (n = 179 women with chronic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The present study examined how social comparison orientation, stress appraisal and different social comparison strategies interact in women facing chronic illness. (2) Methods: Assessments were conducted by a trained professional in face-to face semistructured interviews (n = 179 women with chronic illness). Main outcome measures included social comparison scales and a stress appraisal questionnaire. The mediation model, by a bootstrapping procedure, was used to analyze the interaction among variables. (3) Results: Regarding the relationships among variables studied, they were related to each other except for a downward contrast, which allowed us to propose our hypothetical mediation model. Results showed that stress appraisal fully mediates between social comparison orientation and social comparison strategies except for the upward identification strategy. (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that uncertainty, feelings of threat and low control over one’s illness or, in general, stress appraisal, had an important mediating effects over social comparison processes in patients with chronic illnesses. Therefore, by understanding the stress appraisal process, and the variables that might modify it, we could improve the use of social comparison as a favorable coping strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Stress Exposure on Mental Health and Well-Being)
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Article
Development of a Dust Respirator by Improving the Half Mask Frame Design
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5482; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105482 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Protective efficiency of filtering dust respirators depends on the properties of filter materials from which filters are made and the structure of a half mask frame, which influences how tightly the respirator fits the face. The conducted studies on the “Lepestok 40” dust [...] Read more.
Protective efficiency of filtering dust respirators depends on the properties of filter materials from which filters are made and the structure of a half mask frame, which influences how tightly the respirator fits the face. The conducted studies on the “Lepestok 40” dust respirator revealed a large air leakage through the gaps occurring along the obturation strip. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to develop a dust respirator to provide high level of protection and usability by improving the half mask frame design. A scheme for designing a dust respirator: analysis of operating conditions for the dust respirator; facial anthropometric measurements of potential users; designing a 3D model of half mask frame; laboratory testing of the protective properties of the product. A distinctive feature of this approach is considering the facial anthropometric dimensions of employees of a particular enterprise, standard sizes formation of 3D facial models, which is the basis for designing a half mask frame for dust respirator. A new half mask frame design for dust respirator with a variable geometry of fitting to the face surface has been developed, due to special attachment points that allow changing its size according to the anthropometric dimensions of user’s face. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Safety and Personal Protective Equipment)
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Article
‘All We Have to Decide Is What to Do with the Time That Is Given to Us’ a Photovoice Study on Physical Activity in Nursing Homes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5481; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105481 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 927
Abstract
(1) Background: Despite high prevalence of physical inactivity and sedentariness among nursing home residents, research on the influence of environments on this topic remains scarce. This Photovoice study explores how structural and social environments relate to residents’ everyday physical activity (PA). (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Despite high prevalence of physical inactivity and sedentariness among nursing home residents, research on the influence of environments on this topic remains scarce. This Photovoice study explores how structural and social environments relate to residents’ everyday physical activity (PA). (2) Methods: 27 residents, staff, and significant others conducted Photovoice in eight nursing homes in Germany to document factors facilitating or hindering PA. Photographs were discussed with the participants in eight focus groups and analysed using thematic analysis. (3) Results: 169 photographs (between 8 and 42per home) were categorized into three thematic groups: (1) ‘architectural challenges for PA promotion in nursing homes’; (2) ‘opportunities and limitations of using daily work equipment for PA promotion’; (3) ‘social incentives for PA promotion’. Photographs’ foci in the homes differed considerably between participant groups. Staff primarily chose environmental constructions and aids that they perceived to enable residents’ PA. Residents were more likely to express affections and emotions that would encourage them to be active. (4) Conclusions: PA promotion research in this setting should be sensitive to diverse perceptions of different stakeholder groups and existing power imbalances. Interventions are needed that integrate residents’ needs and train staff on how to consider residents’ perspectives. Full article
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Article
A Randomized Trial of Tai Chi on Preventing Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia in Middle-Aged and Elderly Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5480; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105480 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
In our randomized controlled trial, we investigated whether Wu-style Tai Chi (Tai Chi combined with Daoyin) as a potential exercise prescription is more effective than simplified Tai Chi in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in the middle-aged and elderly. We [...] Read more.
In our randomized controlled trial, we investigated whether Wu-style Tai Chi (Tai Chi combined with Daoyin) as a potential exercise prescription is more effective than simplified Tai Chi in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in the middle-aged and elderly. We randomly assigned 66 patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia to one of the two groups: the Wu-style Tai Chi group or the simplified Tai Chi group; the simplified Tai Chi group only exercised simplified Tai Chi three times a week for 6 weeks. The Wu-style Tai Chi group participated in 60 min of Wu-style Tai Chi three times a week for 6 weeks. Serum biochemical tests were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study. Measurements of blood pressure were performed at the same time. Primary outcomes were compared within and between groups at baseline and at 6 weeks. The participants in the Wu-style Tai Chi group performed, at 6 weeks, significantly better than baseline on all of the primary outcomes (p value ≤ 0.05). The results also show significant difference within the simplified Tai Chi group from baseline to 6 weeks in TCHO (mmol/L), SBP (mmHg), and LDL-C (mmol/L) (p value < 0.05). From baseline to 6 weeks, the Wu-style Tai Chi group had significant differences at more test indexes in serum and blood pressure than the simplified Tai Chi group. At 6 weeks, the Wu-style Tai Chi group had a significantly greater mean improvement in the SBP (mmHg) than did the simplified Tai Chi group (mean between-group difference, −5.80 (mmHg) [95% CI, −14.01 to 2.41]; p = 0.007). The results showed that, compared with simplified Tai Chi, Wu-style Tai Chi had a better effect on hypertension in the middle-aged and elderly. At 6 weeks in LDL-C (mmol/L), the Wu-style Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvement between the two groups (means between-group difference, −0.45 (mmol/L) [95% CI, −0.89 to −0.17]; p = 0.03). The results showed that Wu-style Tai Chi protected the cardiovascular system of the middle-aged and elderly in improving LDL-C (mmol/L), and was more significant than simplified Tai Chi. After 6 weeks of exercise, Wu-style Tai Chi could effectively improve hyperlipidemia and hypertension. The total effective rate of cardiovascular disease was 90.00%. There was significant difference in the treatment effect of hypertension and hyperlipidemia between the two groups during 6 weeks (p = 0.039), showing that, in a small population of middle-aged and elderly subjects, Wu style Tai Chi could be useful in managing important CV risk factors, such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Cardiovascular Risk Factors)
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Review
Skin Cancer Detection: A Review Using Deep Learning Techniques
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105479 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Skin cancer is one of the most dangerous forms of cancer. Skin cancer is caused by un-repaired deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in skin cells, which generate genetic defects or mutations on the skin. Skin cancer tends to gradually spread over other body parts, so [...] Read more.
Skin cancer is one of the most dangerous forms of cancer. Skin cancer is caused by un-repaired deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in skin cells, which generate genetic defects or mutations on the skin. Skin cancer tends to gradually spread over other body parts, so it is more curable in initial stages, which is why it is best detected at early stages. The increasing rate of skin cancer cases, high mortality rate, and expensive medical treatment require that its symptoms be diagnosed early. Considering the seriousness of these issues, researchers have developed various early detection techniques for skin cancer. Lesion parameters such as symmetry, color, size, shape, etc. are used to detect skin cancer and to distinguish benign skin cancer from melanoma. This paper presents a detailed systematic review of deep learning techniques for the early detection of skin cancer. Research papers published in well-reputed journals, relevant to the topic of skin cancer diagnosis, were analyzed. Research findings are presented in tools, graphs, tables, techniques, and frameworks for better understanding. Full article
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Article
The Dark Triad of Personality’s Relationship with Compliance towards COVID-19 Pandemic Recommendations along with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Polish Citizens
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105478 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 895
Abstract
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic forced everyone to comply with rules of a sanitary regime and social distancing on a daily basis. The aim of our research was to assess the differences in the levels of Dark Triad traits between people who [...] Read more.
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic forced everyone to comply with rules of a sanitary regime and social distancing on a daily basis. The aim of our research was to assess the differences in the levels of Dark Triad traits between people who obeyed and disobeyed the pandemic restrictions. Additionally, we considered the possible correlation between the Dark Triad and the intensity of symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 604 Polish participants, whose average age was 28.95 ± 11.27 years, completed an online survey which measured Dark Triad traits using the Polish version of the Dirty Dozen test. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The results revealed a possible relationship between personality traits and compliance with pandemic restrictions. Individuals with higher levels of psychopathy tended to disobey newly introduced rules. On the other hand, a higher level of subclinical narcissism might have contributed to a better civil compliance. The results showed a significant positive correlation between the intensity of the Dark Triad and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, narcissism was linked to anxiety symptoms. These results can contribute to a better understanding of behavioural patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic within the group of individuals who exhibit the Dark Triad traits. Our conclusions might help to identify individuals who are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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Article
An Evaluation of Two Systems for the Management of the Microbiological Quality of Water in Dental Unit Waterlines: Hygowater® and IGN Calbénium®
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5477; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105477 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) represents a risk for vulnerable patients if its microbiological quality is not controlled. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate two systems for its management under real conditions: Hygowater® and IGN Calbenium®. [...] Read more.
Water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) represents a risk for vulnerable patients if its microbiological quality is not controlled. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate two systems for its management under real conditions: Hygowater® and IGN Calbenium®. Samples of the output water of DUWL were obtained for 5 previously contaminated units connected to Hygowater®, and 5 non-contaminated units connected to IGN Calbenium®, which was already effective for more than 1 year, as a control group. Samples were regularly collected up to 6 months after the implementation of Hygowater®, and were then cultured and analyzed. With IGN Calbenium®, except for a technical problem and a sample result in one unit at 6 months (Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) at 37 °C of 66 colony forming units (cfu)/mL), the results showed an absence of contamination. Hygowater® took a couple of weeks to be effective on initially contaminated DUWL (over 200 cfu/mL for all the units), then showed its efficacy for 2 months (HPC at 37 °C with a mean of 40.2 ufc/mL, and HPC at 22 °C with a mean of 0.2 ufc/mL). At 6 months, results were satisfactory for HPC at 22 °C (mean of 12 ufc/mL), but HPC at 37 °C gave non-satisfactory results for 4 of the 5 units (mean of 92.2 ufc/mL). Both systems have an effect on the microbiological quality of DUWL. IGN Calbenium® appears to be more reliable on a long-term basis. Full article
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Article
E-Cigarette Use in Young Adult Never Cigarette Smokers with Disabilities: Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5476; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105476 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Young adult never cigarette smokers with disabilities may be at particular risk for adopting e-cigarettes, but little attention has been paid to these people. This study examines the associations between different types of disability and e-cigarette use in this population. Young adult never-smokers [...] Read more.
Young adult never cigarette smokers with disabilities may be at particular risk for adopting e-cigarettes, but little attention has been paid to these people. This study examines the associations between different types of disability and e-cigarette use in this population. Young adult never-smokers from the 2016–2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey who were either never or current e-cigarette users (n = 79,177) were selected for the analysis. The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) algorithm was used to select confounders for multivariable logistic regression models. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the associations between current e-cigarette use and different types of disability after incorporating BRFSS survey design and adjusting for confounders. Young adult never-smokers who reported any disability had increased odds (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.18–1.76) of e-cigarette use compared to those who reported no disability. Young adult never-smokers who reported self-care, cognitive, vision, and independent living disabilities had higher odds of e-cigarette use compared to those who reported no disability. There was no statistically significant difference in the odds of e-cigarette use for those reporting hearing and mobility disabilities compared to those who reported no disability. This study highlights the need for increased public education and cessation programs for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polytobacco and Alternative Tobacco Product Use in Young Adults)
Article
Treadmill and Running Speed Effects on Acceleration Impacts: Curved Non-Motorized Treadmill vs. Conventional Motorized Treadmill
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5475; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105475 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 791
Abstract
An increase in the popularity of running can be seen over the last decades, with a large number of injuries on it. Most of the running injuries are related to impact accelerations and are due to overuse. In order to reduce the risk [...] Read more.
An increase in the popularity of running can be seen over the last decades, with a large number of injuries on it. Most of the running injuries are related to impact accelerations and are due to overuse. In order to reduce the risk of injury or to improve performance and health new treadmill designs have been created, as it can be the curved non-motorized treadmill. The aim of this study was to analyse impact accelerations, spatio-temporal parameters and perceptual differences while running on curved non-motorized treadmill (cNMT) compared to motorized treadmill (MT) at different speeds. Therefore, 27 recreational runners completed two tests consisting of 10 min warm-up and three bouts of 8 min running at 2.77 m/s, 3.33 m/s and self-selected speed on cNMT and MT, previously randomised. Although the surface did not influence spatio-temporal parameters, a reduction in impact accelerations, head acceleration rate (mean effect size [ES] = 0.86), tibia peak (mean ES = 0.45) and tibia magnitude (mean ES = 0.55), was observed while running on cNMT in comparison with running on MT. Moreover, higher heart rate (HR) (mean ES = 0.51) and rating of perceived effort (RPE) (mean ES = 0.34) were found while running on cNMT. These findings demonstrated that higher intensity training and lower impact accelerations are experimented on cNMT, what can be used by trainers and athletes while planning training sessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Physical Activity and Sport)
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Article
The Prevalence of and Risk Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders in Thai Oil Palm Harvesting Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5474; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105474 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common in various occupations. However, there is still limited research about the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, MSDs among oil palm harvesting workers in Thailand. To investigate the prevalence of MSDs and risk factors associated with MSDs [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common in various occupations. However, there is still limited research about the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, MSDs among oil palm harvesting workers in Thailand. To investigate the prevalence of MSDs and risk factors associated with MSDs in Thai oil palm harvesting workers, face-to-face interviews were conducted with Thai oil palm harvesting workers in Krabi Province, Thailand, using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of four sections which included information on demographic characteristics, work-related characteristics, job stress, and MSDs. A total of 334 oil palm harvesting workers participated in the current study. The prevalence of MSDs during the past 12 months was 88.0%. Lower back MSDs had the highest (59.0%) 12-month prevalence among oil palm harvesting workers, followed by shoulder (37.1%) and neck (27.2%). Factors associated with lower back MSDs included type of task, heavy lifting, and job stress. Moreover, type of task, repetitive movement, and job stress were associated with shoulder and neck MSDs. The cutters had a higher risk of having shoulder and neck MSDs, primarily due to the fact that their work involved cutting the fresh fruit bunches from high up in the trees. The collectors had more back issues due to the heavy lifting. These findings showed the need to raise awareness, and to design guidelines and interventions to prevent MSDs in oil palm harvesting workers. Full article
Article
Workplace Health in Kentucky: A Statewide Comparison
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5473; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105473 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to assess the state of Kentucky’s workplace health promotion and occupational safety and health programs, to ensure the ability to comprehend any possible trends over the past six years in the state’s progress in offering workplace health [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to assess the state of Kentucky’s workplace health promotion and occupational safety and health programs, to ensure the ability to comprehend any possible trends over the past six years in the state’s progress in offering workplace health promotion and health protection programs, to compare the results of this survey with the 2013 Kentucky state-wide assessment, and to identify gaps in Kentucky’s workplace health promotion and occupational safety and health based on Total Worker Health® (TWH) concepts. Using Qualtrics research software, the Workplace Health in America assessment was sent to companies located in Kentucky and having 10 or more employees. Participants were identified using Dun and Bradstreet’s Hoover’s database. The results showed that, as with the 2013 survey, larger workplaces significantly were more likely to offer workplace health promotion programs than smaller companies (X2 = 24.30; p < 0.001). However, more companies (78%) reported offering programs compared to the 2013 assessment (49%). Given the results of the current study as compared to the statewide assessment conducted in 2013, Kentucky’s WHP is moving in a positive direction; yet, there is still much to be done. There remains a strong need to provide cost-effective and accessible resources for all elements of TWH to small workplaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Article
How Loneliness Worked on Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Nursing Home Residents: Roles of Depressive Symptoms and Resilience
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5472; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105472 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Suicide in later life is becoming severe under rapid population aging, especially for nursing home residents. Loneliness, an increasingly represented issue among nursing home residents, is found to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Both loneliness and depressive symptoms may contribute to [...] Read more.
Suicide in later life is becoming severe under rapid population aging, especially for nursing home residents. Loneliness, an increasingly represented issue among nursing home residents, is found to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Both loneliness and depressive symptoms may contribute to the development of suicidal ideation. According to the Protective Factor Model, resilience can act as a moderating role interacting with risk factors to buffer the negative effects on the outcome. The present study aimed to assess the mediating role of depressive symptoms and the moderating effect of resilience on the risk factors of suicidal ideation to attenuate the adverse contribution among nursing home residents. A total of 538 nursing home residents participated in this cross-sectional study, and their suicidal ideation, resilience, loneliness, and depressive symptoms were measured. The mediating effect and moderated mediation model were tested using the Macro Process of SPSS 21.0. Statistics showed that 19.7% of participants had suicidal ideation. The mediating model (H1: B = 0.477, p < 0.001; H2: B = 0.325, p < 0.001; H3: B = 0.308, p < 0.001) and the moderating effect of resilience interacting loneliness (H4: B = −0.133, p < 0.001; H6: B = −0.109, p < 0.001) and depressive symptoms (H5: B = −0.077, p < 0.001) were statistically significant. The findings indicated the protective effect of resilience in alleviating the negative influence of risk factors for suicidal ideation, suggesting that positive psychological interventions for resilience building might be effective in suicide prevention among nursing home residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Attempt Research and Suicide Prevention)
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Article
Sociopolitical Approach to the Launch History of the KBO League: Application of Complex System Paradigm
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5471; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105471 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 640
Abstract
The Korean Baseball Organization (KBO) League is a sports culture that Koreans love and enjoy most. However, the launch of the KBO League is related to political issues in Korea. The purpose of this study is to explain the launch history of the [...] Read more.
The Korean Baseball Organization (KBO) League is a sports culture that Koreans love and enjoy most. However, the launch of the KBO League is related to political issues in Korea. The purpose of this study is to explain the launch history of the KBO league through a sociopolitical approach. The history of the KBO league was explained by applying a complex paradigm that explains sociocultural phenomena from a new perspective. This study used historical analysis, a qualitative study approach. Literature related to Korean professional baseball, complex system theory, sports, and politics were reviewed. This study introduces the characteristics and theory of the complex system paradigm and analyzes the history of the KBO League based on this theory. The edge of chaos, bifurcation point, positive feedback, emergence of the theory of complex system are used as elements of an overall theoretical framework to analyze the history and development of the KBO league. The study results are explained in four frameworks. First, the KBO was launched on the edge of chaos, or in the midst of social chaos provoked by Chun Doo-Hwan, who seized power through a military coup. Second, the Chun Doo-Hwan regime launched the professional baseball league to divert the public’s attention from politics to sports and provided support to construct baseball fields as venues for the national pastime. The Chun Doo-Hwan regime’s appeasement policy became a bifurcation point, which promoted the launch of the professional baseball league. Third, from the viewpoint of the complex system paradigm, the launch of the Korean baseball league was enabled by the positive feedback of the Korea professional baseball promotion committee, established in 1975 under the initiative of Korean American businessman Hong Yoon-Hee. Fourth, the Korean professional baseball league led to the emergence of the consumption culture of professional sports, and it became a national leisure and a crucial part of Korea’s sports culture. In terms of sociopolitical, the KBO League started in the dark of Korean society, but it is becoming a vitality for Korean sports culture and health. Full article
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