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Article

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Resources and Crime-Related Psychosocial Hazards, Stroke Risk, and Cognition in Older Adults

1
College of Science and Health, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60604, USA
2
Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
3
Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
5
Department of Health Systems Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
6
Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lilah Besser, Willa D. Brenowitz and Oanh Le Meyer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105122
Received: 27 March 2021 / Revised: 1 May 2021 / Accepted: 8 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Built Environments and Healthy Brain Aging)
Living in neighborhoods with lower incomes, lower education/occupational levels, and/or higher crime increases one’s risk of developing chronic health problems including cardiovascular disease risk factors and stroke. These cardiovascular health problems are known to contribute to cognitive decline and dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of neighborhood socioeconomic resources and crime-related psychosocial hazards on stroke risk and cognition, hypothesizing that cardiovascular health would mediate any relationship between the neighborhood-level environment and cognition. The study evaluated 121 non-demented Chicago-area adults (~67 years; 40% non-Latino White) for cardiovascular health problems using the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile 10-year risk of stroke (FSRP-10). The cognitive domains that were tested included memory, executive functioning, and attention/information processing. Neighborhood socioeconomic resources were quantified at the census tract level (income, education, and occupation); crime-related psychosocial hazards were quantified at the point level. Structural equation modeling (SEM) did not show that the FSRP-10 mediated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and domain-specific cognition. The SEM results did suggest that higher crime rates were associated with a higher FSRP-10 (β(105) = 2.38, p = 0.03) and that higher FSRP-10 is associated with reduced attention/information processing performance (β(105) = −0.04, p = 0.02) after accounting for neighborhood socioeconomic resources. Clinicians may wish to query not only individual but also neighborhood-level health when considering cognition. View Full-Text
Keywords: crime; cardiovascular risk; attention; information processing; aging crime; cardiovascular risk; attention; information processing; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz, L.D.; Brown, M.; Li, Y.; Boots, E.A.; Barnes, L.L.; Jason, L.; Zenk, S.; Clarke, P.; Lamar, M. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Resources and Crime-Related Psychosocial Hazards, Stroke Risk, and Cognition in Older Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5122. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105122

AMA Style

Ruiz LD, Brown M, Li Y, Boots EA, Barnes LL, Jason L, Zenk S, Clarke P, Lamar M. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Resources and Crime-Related Psychosocial Hazards, Stroke Risk, and Cognition in Older Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5122. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105122

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruiz, Linda D., Molly Brown, Yan Li, Elizabeth A. Boots, Lisa L. Barnes, Leonard Jason, Shannon Zenk, Philippa Clarke, and Melissa Lamar. 2021. "Neighborhood Socioeconomic Resources and Crime-Related Psychosocial Hazards, Stroke Risk, and Cognition in Older Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 10: 5122. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105122

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