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Review

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Metabolic, Genetic, Epigenetic and Environmental Risk Factors

1
Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Translational Research Laboratory, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Università della Svizzera Italiana, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
2
Clinical Medicine Department, Miguel Hernández University, 03550 San Juan de Alicante, Spain
3
Alicante Institute for Health and Biomedical Research (ISABIAL), Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, 03010 Alicante, Spain
4
Networked Biomedical Research Center for Hepatic and Digestive Diseases (CIBERehd), Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bruno Ramos-Molina and Fernando Cardona
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105227
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 29 April 2021 / Accepted: 9 May 2021 / Published: 14 May 2021
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver disease in the Western world, probably due to the growing prevalence of obesity, metabolic diseases, and exposure to some environmental agents. In certain patients, simple hepatic steatosis can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can sometimes lead to liver cirrhosis and its complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms that cause the progression of NAFLD to NASH is crucial to be able to control the advancement of the disease. The main hypothesis considers that it is due to multiple factors that act together on genetically predisposed subjects to suffer from NAFLD including insulin resistance, nutritional factors, gut microbiota, and genetic and epigenetic factors. In this article, we will discuss the epidemiology of NAFLD, and we overview several topics that influence the development of the disease from simple steatosis to liver cirrhosis and its possible complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; obesity; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes mellitus non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; obesity; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes mellitus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Juanola, O.; Martínez-López, S.; Francés, R.; Gómez-Hurtado, I. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Metabolic, Genetic, Epigenetic and Environmental Risk Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5227. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105227

AMA Style

Juanola O, Martínez-López S, Francés R, Gómez-Hurtado I. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Metabolic, Genetic, Epigenetic and Environmental Risk Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(10):5227. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105227

Chicago/Turabian Style

Juanola, Oriol, Sebastián Martínez-López, Rubén Francés, and Isabel Gómez-Hurtado. 2021. "Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Metabolic, Genetic, Epigenetic and Environmental Risk Factors" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 10: 5227. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105227

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