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Article

Short-Term Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown in Italian Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Separation Anxiety

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Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
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Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, Department of Surgical Sciences, Dentistry, Paediatrics and Gynaecology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cheng-Fang Yen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115549
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 22 May 2021
In March 2020, the Italian Government imposed mandatory home confinement to limit the spread of COVID-19. Few studies assessed the psychophysical impact of COVID-19 on chronically ill children. This study examined these effects on children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) and their caregivers. Seventy-one patients (7–13 years) with T1D and their caregivers were administered a survey created ad hoc and some standardized questionnaires, assessing psychological well-being and anxiety. Medical data (physical and biochemical characteristics) were recorded before (T0, January–February) and after (T1, May–June) the lockdown. Paired Student t-test, Spearman two-tailed correlations, and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis. Children at T1 showed higher BMI (body mass index), daily total and basal insulin dose, and time spent in therapeutic range, and they showed lower HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), time spent above the therapeutic range, and standard deviations of the mean glucose values than at T0. A total of 32.9% scored in the clinical range for separation anxiety. The increase in separation anxiety was predicted by younger age, female gender, more recent T1D diagnosis, less time spent in therapeutic range at T1, and higher perceived fear of COVID-19 infection. In a pandemic context, separation anxiety may be stronger in younger females, with more recent T1D diagnosis and poor metabolic control, thus affecting the parent’s ability to manage diabetes and to support children’s autonomy. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; type 1 diabetes mellitus; children; adolescents; separation anxiety COVID-19; type 1 diabetes mellitus; children; adolescents; separation anxiety
MDPI and ACS Style

Di Riso, D.; Bertini, S.; Spaggiari, S.; Olivieri, F.; Zaffani, S.; Comerlati, L.; Marigliano, M.; Piona, C.; Maffeis, C. Short-Term Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown in Italian Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Separation Anxiety. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5549. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115549

AMA Style

Di Riso D, Bertini S, Spaggiari S, Olivieri F, Zaffani S, Comerlati L, Marigliano M, Piona C, Maffeis C. Short-Term Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown in Italian Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Separation Anxiety. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5549. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115549

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Riso, Daniela, Simone Bertini, Silvia Spaggiari, Francesca Olivieri, Silvana Zaffani, Lara Comerlati, Marco Marigliano, Claudia Piona, and Claudio Maffeis. 2021. "Short-Term Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown in Italian Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Separation Anxiety" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5549. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115549

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