2. Literature Review
2.1. M-Health Apps
2.2. Protection Motivation Theory
2.3. Network Externalities
3. Research Model and Hypotheses
3.1. Hypotheses Based on PMT
3.2. Hypotheses Based on Network Externalities
3.2.1. Direct Network Externalities
3.2.2. Indirect Network Externalities
4.1. Data Collection
4.3.1. Measurement Model
4.3.2. Structural Model
5.1. Theoretical Implications
5.2. Practical Implications
5.3. Limitations and Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Education||High school or below||38||10.4|
|Master’s degree or above||66||17.9|
|Underlying minor illness||32||8.7|
|Underlying chronic disease||16||4.3|
|Self-Efficacy||SE1. I know what kind of health-related information is provided on this m-health app.|
SE2. I have the competence to assess the correctness of the health-related information provided on this m-health app.
SE3. I can use this m-health app to make health-related decisions.
|Perceived Vulnerability||PV1. I think I am facing the threat of serious disease.|
PV2. I think I am facing the probability of suffering from a serious disease in the future.
PV3. I will probably suffer from a disease.
|Response Efficacy||RE1. This m-health app can notify users of the starting and ending time of healthcare services in time.|
RE2. This m-health app can send in-time feedback to me.
RE3. This m-health app can provide instructions if I have some problems.
|Direct Network Externalities||DNE1. Most of my friends use this m-health app.|
DNE2. The majority of my colleagues use this m-health app.
DNE3. The majority of the people I know use this m-health app.
|Indirect Network Externalities||INE1. This m-health app provides many complementary services (e.g., health management tools and discussion groups).|
INE2. This m-health app provides many other application services.
INE3. This m-health app provides some value-added services (online shopping, outfits, skincare, weight reduction and body shaping, medical cosmetology, etc.)
|Attitude||ATTI1. Using this m-health app is a good idea.|
ATTI2. Using this m-health app makes seeing a doctor easier and more enjoyable.
ATTI3. I like to use this m-health app.
|Continued Intention||CI1. I intend to continue using this m-health app in the future.|
CI2. I will continue to use this m-health app.
CI3. I will recommend this m-health app to others.
|Perceived Vulnerability (PV)||0.875|
|Response Efficacy (RE)||0.362||0.670||0.848|
|Direct Network Externalities (DNE)||0.276||0.514||0.529||0.923|
|Indirect Network Externalities (INE)||0.333||0.604||0.606||0.478||0.83|
|Continued Intention (CI)||0.293||0.645||0.664||0.470||0.642||0.651||0.894|
|CFA Item Loadings ^||0.814–0.917||0.812–0.879||0.837–0.855||0.915–0.936||0.773–0.853||0.808–0.871||0.877–0.910|
|Independent Variables||Mediator Variable||Dependent Variable||Indirect Effect Coefficients||95% Bias-Corrected Confidence Intervals||Hypotheses|
|SE||ATTI||CI||0.048 (0.020)||(0.008, 0.089)||H8a (√)|
|RE||0.062 (0.023)||(0.017, 0.108)||H8b (√)|
|DNE||0.028 (0.013)||(0.002, 0.054)||H8c (√)|
|INE||0.070 (0.021)||(0.028, 0.111)||H8d (√)|
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