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Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Metabolic, Genetic, Epigenetic and Environmental Risk Factors
Article

Urinary Phthalate Levels Associated with the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults: The Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014

1
Institute of Biomedical Science, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary’s Hospital, Incheon 22711, Korea
2
College of Medicine, Catholic Kwandong University, Gangneung-si 25601, Korea
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bruno Ramos-Molina and Fernando Cardona
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6035; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18116035
Received: 23 February 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 4 June 2021
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. Recent experimental studies suggested that phthalates might induce NAFLD. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between phthalates metabolites and NAFLD in the human population. This cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey II (2012–2014) among Korean adults (n = 5800). NAFLD was diagnosed using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver diseases. Among the participants (mean age 46 years, 47.5% male), the prevalence of NAFLD was associated with urinary levels of mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) compared to the reference group. In the multivariate model, the odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (CI) for NAFLD were 1.33 (1.00–1.78) and 1.39 (1.00–1.92) in the 3rd and 4th quartile of MEHHP, respectively. Based on the study findings, high levels of urinary phthalates are associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in Korean adults. Further investigation is required to elucidate the causal relationship. View Full-Text
Keywords: phthalates; hepatic steatosis index; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Korean National Environmental Health Survey phthalates; hepatic steatosis index; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Korean National Environmental Health Survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.-J.; Kim, T.; Hong, Y.-P. Urinary Phthalate Levels Associated with the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults: The Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6035. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18116035

AMA Style

Yang Y-J, Kim T, Hong Y-P. Urinary Phthalate Levels Associated with the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults: The Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):6035. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18116035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Yun-Jung, Taehyen Kim, and Yeon-Pyo Hong. 2021. "Urinary Phthalate Levels Associated with the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults: The Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 6035. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18116035

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