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Article

Operational Performance and Load Flexibility Analysis of Japanese Zero Energy House

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Innovation Institute for Sustainable Maritime Architecture Research and Technology, Qingdao University of Technology, Fushun Road 11, Qingdao 266033, China
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Faculty of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu 808-0135, Japan
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Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu 802-8577, Japan
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Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Shu-Yuan Pan, Li-Chi Chiang and Yu-Pin Lin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6782; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136782
Received: 1 May 2021 / Revised: 13 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering for Sustainable Environment)
ZEHs (Zero Energy House) featuring energy-efficient designs and on-site renewable integration are being widely developed. This study introduced Japanese ZEHs with well-insulated thermal envelopes and investigated their detailed operational performances through on-site measurements and simulation models. Measurement data show that ZEHs effectively damped the variation of indoor air temperature compared to conventional houses, presenting great ability to retain inside heat energy, and are expected to potentially deliver energy flexibility as a virtual thermal energy storage medium. We developed a simplified thermal resistance–capacitance model for a house heating system; response behaviors were simulated under various scenarios. Results compared the variations of indoor temperature profiles and revealed the dependence of load flexibility on the building’s overall heat loss performance. We observed that overall heat loss rate played a crucial role in building heat energy storage efficiency; a well-insulated house shortened the heat-up time with less energy input, and extended the delayed period of indoor temperature under intermittent heating supply; a high set-point operative temperature and a low ambient temperature led to lower virtual thermal energy storage efficiency. The preheating strategy was simulated as an effective load-shifting approach in consuming surplus PV generation; approximately 50% of consumed PV generation could be shifted to replace grid import electricity for room heating during the occupied period. View Full-Text
Keywords: zero energy house; operational performance; virtual energy storage; load flexibility zero energy house; operational performance; virtual energy storage; load flexibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Gao, W.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ushifusa, Y.; Ruan, Y. Operational Performance and Load Flexibility Analysis of Japanese Zero Energy House. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6782. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136782

AMA Style

Zhang X, Gao W, Li Y, Wang Z, Ushifusa Y, Ruan Y. Operational Performance and Load Flexibility Analysis of Japanese Zero Energy House. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13):6782. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136782

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Xiaoyi, Weijun Gao, Yanxue Li, Zixuan Wang, Yoshiaki Ushifusa, and Yingjun Ruan. 2021. "Operational Performance and Load Flexibility Analysis of Japanese Zero Energy House" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 13: 6782. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136782

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