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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 18, Issue 14 (July-2 2021) – 505 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Time-restricted feeding (TRF) is a form of intermittent fasting (IF) that recently gained popularity among athletes because it encompasses a cyclic alternation between feasting (ad libitum energy intake) and fasting on a daily basis. Many athletes use some form of IF to achieve a specific body mass category—for example, to attain a better strength–mass ratio to improve performance. A high level of Wingate (WnT) performance is desirable because it predicts realistic times for 100, 200, and 400 m running distances. However, the chronic impact of this has only been studied during Ramadan, and it seems to be detrimental for performance. In this paper, the authors use a crossover design to explore the effects of TRF vs. regular diet on WnT performance and body composition in well-trained young men. View this paper
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Article
Persistent Misperceptions about Nicotine among US Physicians: Results from a Randomized Survey Experiment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7713; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147713 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
We conducted a survey experiment among US physicians to evaluate whether question wording impacted perceptions about the health effects of nicotine. 926 physicians were randomized to receive one of two versions of a question matrix that asked about the “extent to which they [...] Read more.
We conducted a survey experiment among US physicians to evaluate whether question wording impacted perceptions about the health effects of nicotine. 926 physicians were randomized to receive one of two versions of a question matrix that asked about the “extent to which they agree or disagree that ‘nicotine’ (Version 1) or ‘nicotine, on its own,’ (Version 2) directly contributes to” birth defects, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, depression, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated whether question condition predicted strong agreement and/or agreement with each statement, and assessed demographic correlates of each outcome while adjusting for question version. Physicians who received Version 2 were less likely to “strongly agree” that nicotine directly caused birth defects (Prevalence Ratio (PR) 0.84, 95% CI 0.72–0.98), CVD (PR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84–0.95), cancer (PR 0.81, 95% CI 0.75–0.87), and COPD (PR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72–0.84). Females were more likely to “strongly agree” that nicotine directly contributes to birth defects and cancer, and family physicians were most likely to “strongly agree” that nicotine directly contributes to CVD, cancer, and COPD. Question wording is important when measuring physicians’ beliefs about nicotine; however, even after accounting for question version, misperceptions about the direct health effects of nicotine were common and varied by sex and specialty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Health Risk)
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Article
Proposal for Modeling Motivational Strategies for Autonomy Support in Physical Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7717; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147717 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 992
Abstract
The motivational style that teachers adopt during their interactions with their students in class can have a significant influence on the search for optimal and balanced development. Knowing the role of motivation in generating positive change, the key is to define the strategies [...] Read more.
The motivational style that teachers adopt during their interactions with their students in class can have a significant influence on the search for optimal and balanced development. Knowing the role of motivation in generating positive change, the key is to define the strategies that constitute an adaptive motivational style of teaching. The aim of this study was to design and validate the set of motivational strategies to support autonomy that are framed within the Self-Determination Theory in the context of physical education classes. For this purpose, a five-phase process was designed and carried out in one study involving different samples of experts, teachers and students. On the one hand, 25 autonomy-supportive motivational strategies were obtained and organized according to their perceived difficulty. We also analyzed the importance attributed by teachers and the difficulty of implementing them, as well as the autonomy support perceived by students through these strategies. The results obtained made it possible to present a behavior-optimizing solution consisting of a progression of 25 autonomy support strategies. The results obtained are discussed in terms of their value in the design of educational scenarios that promote high-quality student motivation. Full article
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Article
Socioeconomic Health Inequalities in Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome and Depression: No Mediation by Parental Depression and Parenting Style
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7716; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147716 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 743
Abstract
We assessed to what extent parental depression and parenting style mediate the relationships between different measures of parental socioeconomic status (SES) and both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, and whether sex moderates these mechanisms. Data were from the prospective multigenerational Dutch [...] Read more.
We assessed to what extent parental depression and parenting style mediate the relationships between different measures of parental socioeconomic status (SES) and both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, and whether sex moderates these mechanisms. Data were from the prospective multigenerational Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study. Our sample consisted of 1217 adolescents with an average follow-up of 33.3 (SD = 7.33) months and a median baseline age of 13 (IQR:13–14) years. We used structural equation models to assess the direct and indirect effects of SES on baseline and changes at follow-up in both depression and MetS, and to assess moderation by sex. For each additional year of education, continuous MetS scores were 0.098 (95%CI: 0.020; 0.184) units lower at baseline and decreased 0.079 (95%CI: 0.004; 0.158) units at follow-up. No other direct or indirect effects of SES were found, and there was no moderation by sex. Additionally, warmer parenting style was generally associated with more favorable outcome scores. Therefore, improving parenting style may improve health for all adolescents. However, in this study parental depression and parenting style did not account for adolescent socioeconomic health inequalities. This may be partly due to good access to social services within the Netherlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
The Influence of Signals on Donation Crowdfunding Campaign Success during COVID-19 Crisis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7715; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147715 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 714
Abstract
In 2020, the coronavirus pandemic devasted public health agencies and the federal government across the world. Bridging the gap between underserved populations and the healthcare system, the donation-based crowdfunding campaign has opened a new way for suffering individuals and families to access broader [...] Read more.
In 2020, the coronavirus pandemic devasted public health agencies and the federal government across the world. Bridging the gap between underserved populations and the healthcare system, the donation-based crowdfunding campaign has opened a new way for suffering individuals and families to access broader social network platforms for financial and non-financial assistance. Despite the growing popularity of crowdfunding during the pandemic crisis, little research has explored the various signals that attract potential donors to donate. This study explores the effects of signaling theory on the success of a crowdfunding campaign for food relief launched in GoFundMe during which the United States was severely affected by the pandemic with a surged number of coronavirus infected cases from 1 March with 134 confirmed COVID-19 infected cases to 29 July with 4,295,308 infected cases according to World Health Organization. The following results show that the three different signal success measures are important to the success of crowdfunding campaigns: (1) signals originating from the campaign (Title, Description, Spelling Error, Location, and Picture); (2) signals originating from the fundraiser (Social Network, and Update); and (3) signals originating from the social interaction of the fundraiser with the crowd (Comment, Follower, and Share). These findings provide insight and bring additional knowledge contribution to the crowdfunding literature. Full article
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Article
Inactivation of Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate on Common Surfaces by Disinfectants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7714; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147714 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Surface disinfection is part of a larger mitigation strategy to prevent the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus causing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Research evaluating the time, nature, and extent of surface disinfection of replication-competent viruses is needed. We evaluated [...] Read more.
Surface disinfection is part of a larger mitigation strategy to prevent the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus causing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Research evaluating the time, nature, and extent of surface disinfection of replication-competent viruses is needed. We evaluated the efficacy of two disinfectants against a replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 surrogate on three common public surfaces. Vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein (VSV-GFP) was our replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 surrogate. Disinfection occurred using Super Sani-Cloth Germicidal Disposable Wipes and Oxivir Tb spray per manufacturer instructions to test the efficacy at reducing the presence, viability, and later replication of VSV-GFP on stainless steel, laminate wood, and porcelain surfaces using standardized methods after recovery and toxicity testing. During the main trials, we placed 100 µL spots of VSV-GFP at viral titers of 108, 107, and 106 PFU/mL on each surface prior to disinfection. Trials were completed in triplicate and post-disinfection measurements on each surface were compared to the measurements of non-disinfected surfaces. Disinfectants were considered efficacious when ≥3-log10 reduction in the number of infectious VSV-GFP virus units was observed on a given surface during all trials. Both disinfectants produced a ≥3.23-log10 reduction in infectious VSV-GFP virus unit numbers, with all trials showing no viable, replication-competent VSV-GFP present on any tested surface. The two disinfectants eliminated the presence, viability, and later replication of VSV-GFP, our SARS-CoV-2 surrogate, on all surfaces. This information suggests that, if following manufacturer instructions, overcleaning surfaces with multiple disinfectant solutions may be unnecessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Outbreak of a Novel Coronavirus: A Global Health Threat)
Article
Anthropometric Characteristics in Taiwanese Adults: Age and Gender Differences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7712; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147712 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Population aging is creating critical issues in Taiwan, and adults are being forced to maintain productivity at work; in other words, they need to work longer. Therefore, their fitness and health warrant immediate attention. Although the association between health and anthropometric characteristics has [...] Read more.
Population aging is creating critical issues in Taiwan, and adults are being forced to maintain productivity at work; in other words, they need to work longer. Therefore, their fitness and health warrant immediate attention. Although the association between health and anthropometric characteristics has been reported, few profiles on Taiwanese adults can be found. The purpose of this study was to provide a suitable reference on the anthropometric data of Taiwanese adults. We recruited 60,056 anthropometric measurements from a representative database. Significant differences were found in every measurement for each gender and age group. Statistically, our results indicated anthropometric differences in different ages. However, CVs showed that the dispersions are minor. This study presents a sufficient profile on Taiwanese adults from a representative database to practitioners and other potential users. Full article
Article
Effects of Group and Individual Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Depression and Sexual Satisfaction among Perimenopausal Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7711; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147711 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Aims: Previous research has shown the efficacy of culturally adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CA-CBT) in reducing depression, yet its effect on increasing sexual satisfaction is not well documented. In this study, an embedded randomized controlled trial design was used to examine the effect [...] Read more.
Aims: Previous research has shown the efficacy of culturally adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CA-CBT) in reducing depression, yet its effect on increasing sexual satisfaction is not well documented. In this study, an embedded randomized controlled trial design was used to examine the effect of group and individual CA-CBT on depression and sexual satisfaction among perimenopausal women. Method: A total of 64 depressed Iranian perimenopausal women were randomly assigned to two formats of treatments; sixteen sessions of group CA-CBT and eight sessions of individual CA-CBT, as well as a waitlist control group. Depression and sexual satisfaction were measured using BDI-II and ENRICH, respectively, at T1 (pre-treatment), T2 (post-treatment) and T3 (follow-up). Results: Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the women who underwent both group and individual CA-CBT had effectively reduced depression and increased sexual satisfaction between pre-treatment and post-treatment, and it was sustained after six months of follow-ups with large effect sizes of significant differences (p < 0.001), but the control group did not. Conclusion: The results showed promising evidence for the efficacy of both treatment groups of CA-CBT for depression and sexual satisfaction among perimenopausal women. The population mental health burden among perimenopausal women may likely be reduced by propagating this effective treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
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Article
An Analysis of COVID-19 Global Guidelines Published in the Early Phase of the Pandemic for People with Disabilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7710; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147710 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Purpose: COVID-19 guidelines for persons with disabilities published globally during the early phase of the pandemic by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies were reviewed and analyzed by trends of information provided under various settings. Method: The Google search engine was used by applying [...] Read more.
Purpose: COVID-19 guidelines for persons with disabilities published globally during the early phase of the pandemic by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies were reviewed and analyzed by trends of information provided under various settings. Method: The Google search engine was used by applying the following search terms: COVID-19, Coronavirus 2019, Disability, and Guidelines. Search efforts yielded 514 records from 1 December 2019 to 16 May 2020. The selected 26 guidelines were classified for analysis by organizations (NGOs, non-profit, and governmental institutions), information provided (risks, prevention, and countermeasures), target group (people with disability, service and support providers, and family members), and environmental setting (hospital, community, and home). Results: Government agencies from eight countries published results. Eight of the 26 guidelines were presented by non-governmental organizations, and 18 were not. There were 15 guidelines for individuals with disabilities; seven for service providers, staff, and families providing care; and four addressing both the individuals with a disability and care providers. In terms of appropriate environment and scope, there were 19 guidelines produced for community, government, home, and hospital. The information predominantly presented regarded the prevention of COVID-19 with 22 sources, followed by general information containing risks and response strategies. Conclusion: The majority of the published guidelines focused primarily on the risks and prevention of COVID-19 for people with disabilities. Future procedures should include specific methods in guiding COVID-19 response strategies for the disabled and caregivers who provide essential health services with access to online resources in multiple languages and dialects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Public Policy against COVID-19)
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Review
Nutrition Education Programs Aimed at African Mothers of Infant Children: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7709; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147709 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Background: Child malnutrition is a major epidemiological problem in developing countries, especially in African countries. Nutrition education for mothers can alleviate this malnutrition in their young children. The objective of this study was to make a systematic review to assess the effect of [...] Read more.
Background: Child malnutrition is a major epidemiological problem in developing countries, especially in African countries. Nutrition education for mothers can alleviate this malnutrition in their young children. The objective of this study was to make a systematic review to assess the effect of intervention programs in nutrition education for African mothers on the nutritional status of their infants. Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out in the PubMed database for clinical trials between November 2012 and 2021. The studies should contain educational programs to evaluate the impact on the infant’s nutritional indicators in children under 5 years (food consumption, anthropometry and/or knowledge of nutrition in caretakers). Results: A total of 20 articles were selected, of which 53% evaluated infant’s food consumption, 82% anthropometric measurements and 30% nutritional knowledge. In general, nutritional education programs are accredited with some significant improvements in food and nutrient consumption, knowledge and dietary practices in complementary feeding, but only those studies that implemented strategies in agriculture, educational workshops and supplementation obtained reductions in chronic malnutrition figures. Limitations: There is high heterogeneity in the articles included, since the intervention programs have different approaches. Conclusions: Programs that implemented actions of national agriculture or nutritional supplementation reap the greatest benefits in curbing infant malnutrition. Full article
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Article
Use of a Spinal Traction Device during Work Shift in Assembly Line Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7708; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147708 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Increasing back discomfort and spinal shrinkage during the workday is a problem that affects assembly line workers. The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of a spinal traction system on discomfort, spinal shrinkage, and spinal sagittal alignment in assembly line [...] Read more.
Increasing back discomfort and spinal shrinkage during the workday is a problem that affects assembly line workers. The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of a spinal traction system on discomfort, spinal shrinkage, and spinal sagittal alignment in assembly line workers, who are in prolonged standing conditions during a workday. A total of 16 asymptomatic males were recruited to assess spinal shrinkage, spinal sagittal alignment, and back discomfort during the workday. The measurement was carried out in two days of work, a normal day, and the other using a spinal traction device utilized in two breaks during the workday. Assembly line workers lost height significantly on both control and intervention days. No differences were found between days. No changes were found in spinal sagittal alignment on the control day. Lumbar lordosis angle increased significantly at the end of the intervention day. The use of a spinal traction device during the workday in two breaks time did not significantly reduce the spinal shrinkage of healthy workers. Lumbar lordosis angle increased significantly at the end of the spinal traction intervention day. Prospective studies would be necessary to clarify the possible benefits of the traction device. Full article
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Article
The Moderating Role of Personality in the Relationship between Internet Use and Study Abroad Difficulties
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7707; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147707 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Studying abroad can be stressful due to culture shock and various other difficulties. However, with the current prevalence of information communication technology, we can surmise that study abroad difficulties should be minimal. Since it has been shown that an individual’s personality is highly [...] Read more.
Studying abroad can be stressful due to culture shock and various other difficulties. However, with the current prevalence of information communication technology, we can surmise that study abroad difficulties should be minimal. Since it has been shown that an individual’s personality is highly associated with their internet use behaviors, it would be interesting to determine the effects of personality traits on the relationship between internet use motives and perceived study abroad difficulties. Data were collected from 1870 volunteer study abroad students in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that when controlling for the effects of age, gender, duration of stay, student status (short-term exchange or degree-seeking), and internet use motives (online benefits, habits, and facilitation), the personality trait neuroticism consistently showed significant relationships with the various study abroad difficulties. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that all the personality traits except conscientiousness showed significant interactions with internet use, while simple slope comparisons showed significant differences between the high personality traits and their lower counterparts. In sum, an examination of the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between internet use and study abroad difficulties may be useful for preemptively identifying at-risk students. Full article
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Article
Functioning and Happiness in People with Schizophrenia: Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Impairment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7706; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147706 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Schizophrenia is associated with marked functional impairment and low levels of subjective happiness. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between subjective happiness and functioning in patients with schizophrenia, while considering the role of cognitive functioning. Methods: In total, [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia is associated with marked functional impairment and low levels of subjective happiness. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between subjective happiness and functioning in patients with schizophrenia, while considering the role of cognitive functioning. Methods: In total, 69 schizophrenia patients and 87 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Patients’ clinical status was assessed, and a series of self-report questionnaires were administered to both patients and healthy controls to measure subjective happiness, satisfaction with life, well-being, functioning, and cognitive impairment. A multiple linear regression model identified significant predictors of subjective happiness and related constructs. Results: Schizophrenia participants endorsed lower levels of happiness and well-being, and higher perceived stress compared to healthy controls. In schizophrenia patients, there was an inverse and significant correlation (r = −0.435; p = 0.013) between subjective happiness and functioning in a subgroup of patients without cognitive impairment. This correlation was not significant (r = −0.175; p = 0.300) in the subgroup with cognitive impairment. When controlling for other clinical variables (by multiple lineal regression), the severity of symptoms and level of insight failed to demonstrate significant relationships with happiness; meanwhile, perceived stress and some specific cognitive dominions (as verbal learning and processing speed) were associated with satisfaction of life of the patients. Conclusions: The relationship between subjective happiness and functioning in schizophrenia patients was influenced by level of cognitive impairment. Findings from this study suggest that rehabilitation programs may improve recovery outcomes with a focus on subjective happiness and functioning, especially in patients with cognitive impairment. Future research is needed to better understand the complex interplay between subjective happiness, functioning, and cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
Article
Outdoor Recreation for Older Adults in Scotland: Qualitatively Exploring the Multiplicity of Constraints to Participation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7705; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147705 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Active ageing can lead to better health outcomes in older people. Examining constraints to outdoor recreation for older people, including outdoor physical activity, may therefore assist with developing strategies for active ageing. Findings are presented from a study seeking to understand the constraints [...] Read more.
Active ageing can lead to better health outcomes in older people. Examining constraints to outdoor recreation for older people, including outdoor physical activity, may therefore assist with developing strategies for active ageing. Findings are presented from a study seeking to understand the constraints to older peoples’ access to outdoor recreation in Scotland, and this paper aimed to examine the multitude of constraints that discourage or prevent older people from accessing the outdoors and the ways in which these constraints are hierarchical (or not). This paper adopted a qualitative methodology using the hierarchical leisure constraints model (HLCM) as a lens to analyse the data, presenting the data in three vignettes. The paper identified multiple co-occurring constraints and considered these in relation to expectations based on the HLCM. Recognising that constraints to outdoor recreation for older people are multiple, co-occurring and mutually reinforcing may enable more effective solutions to be developed to overcome them. Full article
Article
Youth Perspectives on What Makes a Sports Club a Health-Promoting Setting—Viewed through a Salutogenic Settings-Based Lens
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7704; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147704 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 635
Abstract
Sports participation has the potential to contribute to young people’s health. A prerequisite for young people to benefit from sports is that they stay in sports. Studies that consider both personal and contextual factors are needed to unpack the broader health-promoting potential of [...] Read more.
Sports participation has the potential to contribute to young people’s health. A prerequisite for young people to benefit from sports is that they stay in sports. Studies that consider both personal and contextual factors are needed to unpack the broader health-promoting potential of youth sports. The purpose of the study is to contribute to knowledge about the health-promoting potential of young people’s participation in organized sports by exploring youth perspectives on what makes a sports club health-promoting with a focus on health resources that young people consider important for sports club participation. For this cross-sectional study a brief survey was conducted with 15–16 year old students (n = 123) at two schools in Sweden, asking three open-ended questions about their participation in sports. The study used a salutogenic theory-driven analysis in combination with statistical analysis. Five health resources that young people consider important for sports club participation are revealed. On an individual, more ‘swimmer’-related level, these are personal well-being and social relations, including relationally meaningful activities, and on an organizational level, relating to the ‘river’, that sports clubs offer a supportive and well-functioning environment. For sports clubs to be health-promoting settings for young people and thus hopefully to reduce drop-out, we need a more sustainable approach emphasizing drop-in, drop-through, and drop-over as a continuous iterative process. We also need to consider the complexity of sports participation for young people, involving individual, organizational and environmental issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion and Sport)
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Article
Evaluation of Groundwater Using an Integrated Approach of Entropy Weight and Stochastic Simulation: A Case Study in East Region of Beijing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7703; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147703 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Groundwater is an important source of water in Beijing. Hydrochemical composition and water quality are the key factors to determine the availability of groundwater. Therefore, an improved integrated weight water quality index approach (IWQI) combining the entropy weight method and the stochastic simulation [...] Read more.
Groundwater is an important source of water in Beijing. Hydrochemical composition and water quality are the key factors to determine the availability of groundwater. Therefore, an improved integrated weight water quality index approach (IWQI) combining the entropy weight method and the stochastic simulation method is proposed. Through systematic investigation of groundwater chemical composition in different periods, using a hydrogeochemical diagram, multivariate statistics and spatial interpolation analysis, the spatial evolution characteristics and genetic mechanism of groundwater chemistry are discussed. The results show that the groundwater in the study area is weakly alkaline and low mineralized water. The south part of the study area showed higher concentrations of total dissolved solids, total hardness and NO3-N in the dry season and wet season, and the main hydrochemical types are HCO3-Ca and HCO3-Ca-Mg. The natural source mechanism of the groundwater chemical components in Chaoyang District includes rock weathering, dissolution and cation exchange, while the human-made sources are mainly residents and industrial activities. Improved IWQI evaluation results indicate that water quality decreases from southwest to northeast along groundwater flow path. The water quality index (WQI) method cannot reflect the trend of groundwater. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the improved IWQI method could describe the overall water quality reliably, accurately and stably. Full article
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Article
Intrauterine Exposures and Maternal Health Status during Pregnancy in Relation to Later Child Health: A Review of Pregnancy Cohort Studies in Europe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147702 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 634
Abstract
We show a description of pregnancy cohorts in the European region. Our investigation identified 66 pregnancy cohorts, mostly hosted in Western Central Europe. Among these 66 cohorts, 24 began recruitment before the year 2000, while six cohorts are still enrolling. The most common [...] Read more.
We show a description of pregnancy cohorts in the European region. Our investigation identified 66 pregnancy cohorts, mostly hosted in Western Central Europe. Among these 66 cohorts, 24 began recruitment before the year 2000, while six cohorts are still enrolling. The most common topics were lifestyle, environment and nutrition with allergies and neurodevelopment being a minority. We observed a pattern of positive correlations between data collected using medical records, structured interviews, and the collection of biological samples. Objectively assessed data were negatively correlated with self-administered questionnaires. Eight cohorts addressed intrauterine exposure, focusing on environmental pollutants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The effects of these compounds on the developing foetus have been studied greatly, but more research on their effects is still needed. Many cohorts investigated genetics through the collection of biological samples from the mothers and children, to improve knowledge on the mother-to-child transmission of genetic information, antibodies, microbiota, etc. Paediatric epidemiology represents an important field of research since preserving healthy lives from conception onwards is the most efficient way to improve population health. According to our report, it seems that this field of research is well developed in Europe, where numerous high profile studies are currently ongoing. Full article
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Article
Developing Sustainable Food Systems in Europe: National Policies and Stakeholder Perspectives in a Four-Country Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147701 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 714
Abstract
To address climate change, health, and food-related challenges at the international and regional level, policy makers and researchers are starting to acknowledge the importance of building and developing sustainable food systems (SFSs). This study aims to discuss the drivers of, barriers to, and [...] Read more.
To address climate change, health, and food-related challenges at the international and regional level, policy makers and researchers are starting to acknowledge the importance of building and developing sustainable food systems (SFSs). This study aims to discuss the drivers of, barriers to, and policy recommendations for developing sustainable food systems in four European countries (Germany, Italy, Norway, and Romania). We used critical frame analysis to investigate national policy documents on sustainable food systems and conducted in-depth interviews with various national stakeholders representing policy makers, agrifood businesses, and civil society. The novelty of this research lies in comparing national policy approaches and stakeholders’ opinions on SFS development in a multi-country analysis. These European countries have different conditions in terms of geography, socioeconomic situation, environmental performance, and sustainability orientation. Several cross-cultural differences and gaps in the existing national policies for sustainable food systems were identified, and solutions that help overcome these issues have been suggested. The first step in developing SFS should focus on interdisciplinary and trans-sectorial policy integration combined with increasing stakeholder collaboration across all sectors of the economy. We also recommend more active involvement of consumers in the food system, developing information-sharing networks, and increasing collaborations within the food supply chains. Full article
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Article
The Relationship between Family Functioning and Pathological Internet Use among Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Hope and the Moderating Role of Social Withdrawal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7700; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147700 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 564
Abstract
This study constructed a moderated mediation model based on problem behavior theory to explore the psychological mechanism of family functioning interaction with pathological internet use. We used the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale, General Functioning Scale, Trait Hope Scale, and Social Withdrawal Scale [...] Read more.
This study constructed a moderated mediation model based on problem behavior theory to explore the psychological mechanism of family functioning interaction with pathological internet use. We used the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale, General Functioning Scale, Trait Hope Scale, and Social Withdrawal Scale to measure internet use in 1223 middle school students. The results showed that (1) pathological internet use was negatively correlated with family functioning and hope, and positively correlated with social withdrawal; family functioning was positively correlated with hope, and negatively correlated with social withdrawal; hope was negatively correlated with social withdrawal; (2) family functioning could not only directly predict pathological internet use, but also indirectly predict pathological internet use through hope; and (3) the mediating effect of family functioning on pathological internet use was moderated by social withdrawal, which was stronger for individuals with low social withdrawal but not significant for individuals with high social withdrawal. This study revealed the internal mechanism of the relation between family functioning and adolescents’ pathological internet use, which has theoretical significance for improving adolescents’ hope and reducing their pathological internet use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Internet Addiction)
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Review
Suicide and Associations with Air Pollution and Ambient Temperature: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7699; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147699 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Given health threats of climate change, a comprehensive review of the impacts of ambient temperature and ar pollution on suicide is needed. We performed systematic literature review and meta-analysis of suicide risks associated with short-term exposure to ambient temperature and air pollution. Pubmed, [...] Read more.
Given health threats of climate change, a comprehensive review of the impacts of ambient temperature and ar pollution on suicide is needed. We performed systematic literature review and meta-analysis of suicide risks associated with short-term exposure to ambient temperature and air pollution. Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for English-language publications using relevant keywords. Observational studies assessing risks of daily suicide and suicide attempts associated with temperature, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) and ≤2.5 mm (PM2.5), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) were included. Data extraction was independently performed in duplicate. Random-effect meta-analysis was applied to pool risk ratios (RRs) for increases in daily suicide per interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure. Meta-regression analysis was applied to examine effect modification by income level based on gross national income (GNI) per capita, national suicide rates, and average level of exposure factors. In total 2274 articles were screened, with 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria for air pollution and 32 studies for temperature. RRs of suicide per 7.1 °C temperature was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.13). RRs of suicide per IQR increase in PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.05), 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03), and 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07). O3, SO2, and CO were not associated with suicide. RR of suicide was significantly higher in higher-income than lower-income countries (1.09, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.11 and 1.20, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.26 per 7.1 °C increased temperature, respectively). Suicide risks associated with air pollution did not significantly differ by income level, national suicide rates, or average exposure levels. Research gaps were found for interactions between air pollution and temperature on suicide risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding and Prevention of Suicide)
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Article
The Impacts of Sun Exposure on Worker Physiology and Cognition: Multi-Country Evidence and Interventions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7698; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147698 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Background: A set of four case-control (n = 109), randomized-controlled (n = 7), cross-sectional (n = 78), and intervention (n = 47) studies was conducted across three countries to investigate the effects of sun exposure on worker physiology and [...] Read more.
Background: A set of four case-control (n = 109), randomized-controlled (n = 7), cross-sectional (n = 78), and intervention (n = 47) studies was conducted across three countries to investigate the effects of sun exposure on worker physiology and cognition. Methods: Physiological, subjective, and cognitive performance data were collected from people working in ambient conditions characterized by the same thermal stress but different solar radiation levels. Results: People working under the sun were more likely to experience dizziness, weakness, and other symptoms of heat strain. These clinical impacts of sun exposure were not accompanied by changes in core body temperature but, instead, were linked with changes in skin temperature. Other physiological responses (heart rate, skin blood flow, and sweat rate) were also increased during sun exposure, while attention and vigilance were reduced by 45% and 67%, respectively, compared to exposure to a similar thermal stress without sunlight. Light-colored clothes reduced workers’ skin temperature by 12–13% compared to darker-colored clothes. Conclusions: Working under the sun worsens the physiological heat strain experienced and compromises cognitive function, even when the level of heat stress is thought to be the same as being in the shade. Wearing light-colored clothes can limit the physiological heat strain experienced by the body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Change)
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Review
Association of IL-10 and TNF-α Polymorphisms with Dental Peri-Implant Disease Risk: A Meta-Analysis, Meta-Regression, and Trial Sequential Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7697; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147697 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Genetic susceptibility has been reported to be an important risk factor for peri-implant disease (PID). The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between TNF-α and IL-10 polymorphisms and PID susceptibility. The Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and PubMed/Medline databases [...] Read more.
Genetic susceptibility has been reported to be an important risk factor for peri-implant disease (PID). The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between TNF-α and IL-10 polymorphisms and PID susceptibility. The Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and PubMed/Medline databases were searched for studies published until 12 April 2021. RevMan 5.3, CMA 2.0, SPSS 22.0, and trial sequential analysis software were used. Twelve studies were included in our analysis. The pooled ORs for the association of TNF-α (−308 G > A), IL-10 (−1082 A > G), IL-10 (−819 C > T), and IL-10 (−592 A > C) polymorphisms were 1.12, 0.93, 1.35, and 0.77 for allelic; 1.42, 0.95, 3.41, and 0.34 for homozygous; 1.19, 1.88, 1.23, and 0.49 for heterozygous, 1.53, 1.12, 1.41, and 0.39 for recessive; and 1.16, 1.87, 2.65, and 0.75 for dominant models, respectively, with all the estimates being insignificant. The results showed an association between TNF-α (−308 G > A) polymorphism and the risk of PID in patients of Asian ethnicity (OR = 1.59; p = 0.03). The present meta-analysis illustrated that TNF-α (−308 G > A), IL-10 (−1082 A > G), IL-10 (−819 C > T), and IL-10 (−592 A > C) polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of PID, whereas TNF-α (−308 G > A) polymorphism was associated with an elevated risk of PID in Asian patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases)
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Article
Multidisciplinary Care after Acute Care for Stroke: A Prospective Comparison between a Multidisciplinary Post-Acute Care Group and a Standard Group Matched by Propensity Score
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7696; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147696 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
In this large-scale prospective cohort study, a propensity score matching method was applied in a natural experimental design to investigate how post-acute care (PAC) after stroke affects functional status and to identify predictors of functional status. The main objective of this study was [...] Read more.
In this large-scale prospective cohort study, a propensity score matching method was applied in a natural experimental design to investigate how post-acute care (PAC) after stroke affects functional status and to identify predictors of functional status. The main objective of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in various measures of functional status in stroke patients and predictors of scores for these measures before and after PAC. A group of patients who had received PAC for stroke at one of two medical centers (PAC group, n = 273) was compared with a group who had received standard care for stroke at one of four hospitals (three regional hospital and one district hospital; non-PAC group, n = 273) in Taiwan from March, 2014, to October, 2018. The patients completed the functional status measures before rehabilitation, the 12th week and the 1st year after rehabilitation. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate differences-in-differences models for examining the effects of PAC. The average age was 68.0 (SD = 8.1) years, and males accounted for 57.9%. During the follow-up period, significant risk factors for poor functional outcomes were advanced age, hemorrhagic stroke, and poor function scores before rehabilitation (p < 0.05). Between-group comparisons at subsequent time points revealed significantly higher functional status scores in the PAC group versus the non-PAC group (p < 0.001). Notably, for all functional status measures, between-group differences in total scores significantly increased over time from baseline to 1 year post-rehabilitation (p < 0.001). The contribution of this study is its further elucidation of the clinical implications and health policy implications of rehabilitative care after stroke. Specifically, it improves understanding of the effects of PAC in stroke patients at different follow-up times. Therefore, a policy implication of this study is that standard care for stroke should include intensive rehabilitative PAC to maximize recovery of overall function. Full article
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Article
Timing of WIC Enrollment and Responsive Feeding among Low-Income Women in the US
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7695; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147695 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 475
Abstract
We examined associations between the timing of The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) enrollment and responsive feeding and assessed food security as a possible effect modifier. We used data from the nationally representative WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding [...] Read more.
We examined associations between the timing of The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) enrollment and responsive feeding and assessed food security as a possible effect modifier. We used data from the nationally representative WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2. Our sample includes women-infant dyads interviewed through the first 13 months of age (n = 1672). We dichotomized WIC enrollment as occurring prenatally or after childbirth. The responsive feeding outcome was feeding on demand versus feeding on schedule. We used covariate-adjusted logistic regressions. Of women, 61.8% had a high school education or less and 62.9% lived at 75% or less of the federal poverty guideline. The majority (84.5%) of women enrolled in WIC before childbirth. In unadjusted estimates, 34% of women who enrolled prenatally practiced responsive feeding, compared to 25% of women who enrolled after childbirth. We found no evidence of food security as an effect modifier. In adjusted estimates, women who enrolled in WIC prenatally had 78% higher odds of practicing responsive feeding (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.73), compared to women who enrolled after childbirth. Prenatal enrollment in WIC was associated with higher odds of responsive feeding. Future studies should examine how the timing of WIC enrollment relates to responsive feeding in older children and over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behaviors and Health Outcomes in Low-Income Populations)
Article
Fast Eccentric Movement Tempo Elicits Higher Physiological Responses than Medium Eccentric Tempo in Ice-Hockey Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7694; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147694 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Background: Resistance training is a significant part of ice-hockey players’ conditioning, where optimal loading should ensure strength development and proper recovery. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the acute physiological responses to fast and medium movement tempo resistance exercises in ice-hockey players. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Resistance training is a significant part of ice-hockey players’ conditioning, where optimal loading should ensure strength development and proper recovery. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the acute physiological responses to fast and medium movement tempo resistance exercises in ice-hockey players. Methods: Fourteen ice-hockey players (26.2 ± 4.2 years; 86.4 ± 10.2 kg; squat one repetition maximum (1RM) = 130.5 ± 18.5) performed five sets of the barbell squat and barbell bench press at 80% 1RM until failure in a crossover design one week apart using either 2/0/2/0 or 6/0/2/0 (eccentric/isometric/concentric/isometric) tempo of movement. The blood samples to evaluate the concentration of cortisol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (hGH) were taken before exercise, 3 min after the last set of the squat exercise, 3 min after the last set of the bench press exercise, and after 30 min of recovery. Results: The 2/0/2/0 tempo resulted in a higher number of repetitions (p < 0.001) and lower time under tension (p < 0.001) in the squat and bench press exercises compared to the 6/0/2/0 movement tempo. The endocrine responses to exercise were significantly higher during the 2/0/2/0 compared to the 6/0/2/0 movement tempo protocol for IGF-1, hGH, and cortisol (p < 0.01). There were no differences in testosterone responses between exercises performed with fast and medium movement tempos. Conclusion: Fast eccentric tempo induced higher cortisol, IGF-1, and hGH responses compared to the medium tempo. Therefore, fast eccentric movement tempo seems to be more useful in eliciting training stimulus than medium eccentric tempo during resistance training in ice-hockey players. However, future studies are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training in Physical Fitness and Sports Performance)
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Article
Assessment of Water Resources Carrying Risk and the Coping Behaviors of the Government and the Public
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7693; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147693 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
The carrying capacity of water resources is of great significance to economic and social development, eco-environmental protection, and public health. The per capita water resources in Zhejiang Province is only 2280.8 m3, which is more likely to cause the risk of [...] Read more.
The carrying capacity of water resources is of great significance to economic and social development, eco-environmental protection, and public health. The per capita water resources in Zhejiang Province is only 2280.8 m3, which is more likely to cause the risk of water resources carrying capacity in the case of water shortage. Therefore, this paper applies Analytic Hierarchy Process-Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation and Entropy-Principal Component Analysis to evaluate the vulnerability of disaster-bearers and the risk of disaster-causing factors; it comprehensively evaluates the risk of water resources carrying capacity in Zhejiang Province by constructing risk matrix and ranking scores. The specific results are as follows: According to the comprehensive evaluation of the vulnerability of disaster-bearers in Zhejiang Province from the three aspects of supporting force, regulating force, and pressure, the overall performance was good. In particular, the role of supporting force is the most obvious. In the risk of disaster factors, it was found that industrial structure, climate change, water use efficiency, and population structure have great influence, showing that southern Zhejiang is at a greater risk than northern Zhejiang, and western Zhejiang is at a greater risk than eastern Zhejiang, but the overall score gap is not large. Combining the two results, the order of water resources carrying risk in Zhejiang Province from low to high was Hangzhou, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Jinhua, Quzhou, Wenzhou, Lishui, Taizhou, and Zhoushan. Finally, according to the development planning of different cities, the coping behaviors of the government and the public regarding water resources carrying risk are put forward. Full article
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Article
Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Disease Measures from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7692; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147692 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 657
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular disease is a key health condition associated with tobacco use; however, clinical measures are not typically possible in population-based studies. In this paper, we assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and diseases in a large nationally representative [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular disease is a key health condition associated with tobacco use; however, clinical measures are not typically possible in population-based studies. In this paper, we assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and diseases in a large nationally representative study of tobacco use and health outcomes. Methods: This paper analyzes self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and disease among adults age 40 years and older based on U.S. nationally representative data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (self-reported high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and family history of premature heart disease, BMI ≥ 35, and tobacco use) and cardiovascular disease (self-reported heart attack, stroke and/or congestive heart failure (CHF)) were considered along with ratings of physical functioning, fatigue, and general health. Results: Self-reported cardiovascular disease was found to be associated with functional health measures (walking up a flight of stairs) and general ratings of health. Prospective analyses found strong correlations between sequential data collection waves for history of hypertension, elevated cholesterol and CHF, while more modest correlations were noted for stroke and heart attack. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease and hypertension was comparable to those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Conclusions: These analyses suggest reliability and concurrent validity regarding self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and disease assessed in the PATH Study. Full article
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Article
Effects of Acute Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy on Aerobic Performance during a Preseason Training Camp: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7691; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147691 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Bio-electromagnetic-energy-regulation (BEMER) therapy is a technology using a low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in a biorhythmic format. BEMER has been shown to optimize recovery and decrease fatigue by increasing blood flow in microvessels. Our aim was to determine its effects during preseason training [...] Read more.
Bio-electromagnetic-energy-regulation (BEMER) therapy is a technology using a low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in a biorhythmic format. BEMER has been shown to optimize recovery and decrease fatigue by increasing blood flow in microvessels. Our aim was to determine its effects during preseason training in endurance athletes. A total of 14 male cross-country runners (19.07 ± 0.92 y.o.) were placed in either the intervention (PEMF; n = 8) or control (CON; n = 6) group using a covariate-based, constrained randomization. Participants completed six running sessions at altitudes ranging from 881.83 (±135.98 m) to 1027.0 (±223.44 m) above sea level. PEMF group used BEMER therapy before and after each training session, totaling 12 times. There were no significant changes in absolute or relative VO2Peak, ventilation or maximum respiration rate for either the PEMF or CON group (p > 0.05). There was a significant effect of time for absolute and relative ventilatory threshold (VT), and maximum heart rate, heart rate at VT and respiration rate at VT. This study was the first of its kind to study PEMF technology in combination with elevated preseason training. Results indicate some evidence for the use of PEMF therapy during short-term training camps to improve VT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport and Health)
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Article
Identification of Groundwater Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of a Landfill in a Low Permeability Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7690; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147690 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 482
Abstract
The shallow weathering fissure groundwater in the red-bed area of Southwest China is usually the only drinking water source for most rural residents. In this study, a typical landfill with surrounding residents drinking unpurified groundwater in red-bed area was selected and water quality [...] Read more.
The shallow weathering fissure groundwater in the red-bed area of Southwest China is usually the only drinking water source for most rural residents. In this study, a typical landfill with surrounding residents drinking unpurified groundwater in red-bed area was selected and water quality detection, groundwater numerical simulation and human health risk assessment were used to identify and assess groundwater pollution in the region. The chemical type evolved from HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg and HCO3-SO4-Ca to Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 contaminated by the landfill. Na+ and Cl were selected as factors for rapid identification of groundwater pollution. Subsequent analyses using these factors showed that the leachate pollution plume boundary was 190 m downstream of the landfill. Analysis of the redox conditions revealed that the area from the landfill to 5 m downstream was the reduction zone, while the area beyond 5 m was the oxidation zone. The migration and attenuation patterns of inorganic salts (such as SO42−) and heavy metals (such as Fe and Mn) in the oxidation and reduction zones differed obviously. Meanwhile, the organic pollutants in the leachate were reduced and decomposed into organic acids, which caused the groundwater 80 m downstream of the landfill to become weakly acidic (pH ranged from 6.51 to 6.83), and promoted re-entry of adsorbed heavy metals (such as Pb) into the groundwater. The groundwater risk assessment based on human health revealed that lead, manganese, chlorobenzene, dichloroethane and chloroform constituted a major health threat to the residents. The rank of non-carcinogenic risk was lead >manganese, and the maximum area of non-carcinogenic risk was 15,485 m2. The total carcinogenic risk caused by organic pollutants was 7.9 × 10−6, and the area of the carcinogenic risk zone was 11,414 m2. Overall, the results of this study provide a scientific basis for management of drinking water and groundwater remediation in the red-bed area with low permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Article
Athletes Drive Distinctive Trends of COVID-19 Infection in a College Campus Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7689; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147689 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic forced most institutions of higher education to offer instruction and activities offsite, impacting millions of people. As universities consider resuming normal operations on campus, evidence-based guidance is needed to enhance safety protocols to reduce the spread of infectious disease in [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic forced most institutions of higher education to offer instruction and activities offsite, impacting millions of people. As universities consider resuming normal operations on campus, evidence-based guidance is needed to enhance safety protocols to reduce the spread of infectious disease in their campus environments. During the 2020/2021 academic year, Gannon University in Erie, PA, USA, was able to maintain most of its operations on campus. Part of Gannon’s disease mitigation strategy involved the development of a novel in-house, real-time RT-PCR-based surveillance program, which tested 23,227 samples to monitor the presence of COVID-19 on campus. Temporal trends of COVID-19 infection at Gannon were distinct from statewide data. A significant portion of this variance involved student athletes and associated staff, which identified as a higher incidence risk group compared with non-athletes. Rapid identification of athlete driven outbreaks allowed for swift action to limit the spread of COVID-19 among teammates and to the rest of the campus community. This allowed for successful completion of instruction and a modified season for all sports at Gannon. Our findings provide insights that could prove useful to the thousands of institutions seeking to resume a more traditional presence on campus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Article
Environmental Factors Associated with Physical Activity in Rural U.S. Counties
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7688; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147688 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Background: Rural U.S. adults’ prevalence of meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines is lower than urban adults, yet rural-urban differences in environmental influences of adults’ PA are largely unknown. The study’s objective was to identify rural-urban variations in environmental factors associated with the prevalence [...] Read more.
Background: Rural U.S. adults’ prevalence of meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines is lower than urban adults, yet rural-urban differences in environmental influences of adults’ PA are largely unknown. The study’s objective was to identify rural-urban variations in environmental factors associated with the prevalence of adults meeting PA guidelines. Methods: County-level data for non-frontier counties (n = 2697) were used. A five-category rurality variable was created using the percentage of a county’s population living in a rural area. Factor scores from Factor Analyses (FA) were used in subsequent Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analyses stratified by rurality to identify associations between environmental factor scores and the prevalence of males and females meeting PA guidelines. Results: FA revealed a 13-variable, four-factor structure of natural, social, recreation, and transportation environments. MLR revealed that natural, social, and recreation environments were associated with PA for males and females, with variation by sex for social environment. The natural environment was associated with PA in all but urban counties; the recreation environment was associated with PA in the urban counties and the two most rural counties. Conclusions: Variations across the rural-urban continuum in environmental factors associated with adults’ PA, highlight the uniqueness of rural PA and the need to further study what succeeds in creating active rural places. Full article
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