2. Refining the Understanding of How Resilience Protective Factors Relate to Mental Health Problems in Children and Adolescents
3. Evidence Contributed by Systematic Reviews Examining Associations between Mental Health Problems and Protective Factors
4.1. Provide Clarity and Rationale for Conceptual Underpinning and Intervention Content
4.2. Ensure Sound Resilience Protective Factor Measurement
4.3. Examine Differential Intervention Effect for Subgroups
4.4. Limitations of the Current Conceptual Analysis
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Factors for Resilience Utilised in Dray et al., 2017, Review of International Peer Review Publications ||Factors Identified by Masten et al., 2021, as a Short List of Many Reported in Resilience Studies ||Factors that Build Resilience Identified by Beyond Blue, Literature and Consultation Based, 2018 ||Factors Identified by Beyond Blue for Focus in Resilience Interventions Developed from Expert Consensus, Using a Delphi Process |
|Internal protective factors||Factors noted as reported in resilience studies across individual, family, school, community, and organisational levels:||Factors within the child||Factors with 100% consensus|
|Review/Mental Health Outcome||Type and Age Range of Included Studies/Analysis||Individual Level Factors||Family Level Factors||School or Peer Level Factors||Community or Neighbourhood Level Factors|
|Stirling et al., 2015 |
|18 cross-sectional and 3 cohort studies, children and adolescents (4 to 18 years);|
meta-analysis, protective factor
|Gariepy et al., 2016 |
|18 cross-sectional and 13 cohort studies, children and adolescents (8 to 20 years);|
meta-analysis, protective factors
|Cairns et al., 2014 |
|69 prospective cohort studies, adolescents (12 to 18 years);|
meta-analysis, evidence for risk and protective factors summarised into sound, emerging, minimal or insufficient (indicated by subscript of 1, 2 or 3 respectively)
|Brumley and Jaffee, 2016 |
|60 longitudinal studies, children and adolescents (year range not provided). |
Narratively summarised quantitative association analysis results of included studies, protective factors
|Fritz et al., 2018 |
|22 cohort studies, adolescents and young adults (13–24 years).Narrative described moderating or mediating resilience factors of included studies|
|Positive MH a|
|Null MH b|
|Positive PF c||14||7||21 (57)|
|Null PF d||4||12||16 (43)|
|Total n||18||19||37 (100)|
|Study||Mental Health (MH) Outcome||Summary of Intervention Effects||Protective Factors (PFs) Targeted||PFs Included in Mediation Analysis||Mediation Analysis Results|
|Essau 2012 :|
Sample size: n = 638
Mean age: 10.9 years
Intervention length: 26 weeks
Significant intervention effects for anxiety symptoms at post-intervention, 6- and 12-month follow-up.
Significant intervention effects for perfectionism, coping, and social and adaptive functioning; however, not for social skills.
|Empathy, cognitive competence, coping, problem solving/decision making, goals and aspirations.||Perfectionism and coping acted as mediators of change in pre- to post-test anxiety symptom scores.|
Non-significant for social skills and social and adaptive functioning.
|Horowitz 2007 :|
Sample size: n = 380
Mean age: 14.43 years
Intervention length: 8 weeks
Positive intervention effect for depressive symptoms at post-intervention, not sustained at 6-month follow-up.
Significant intervention effect for cognitive competence. No significant effects for coping and quality of parent-child relationships.
|Goals and aspirations, cognitive competence, problem solving/decision making, coping.||Non-significant results for mediation analysis.|
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