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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 18, Issue 15 (August-1 2021) – 517 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Socialization with peers provides and facilitates opportunities to adolescents to engage in risky substance use. Restrictive measures implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the social life of adolescents and their health behaviors. The period of confinement and social distancing reduced adolescents’ opportunities to access psychoactive substances and engage in risky consumption. The findings of this article show a general trend of reduction in adolescents’ consumption of alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco during COVID-19 confinement. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics studied, except for the academic course. Despite the decrease in consumption, some of these percentages are still quite high given the context in which they were found. View this paper.
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Article
An Analysis of Differences in the Role of Friendships and the School Class in Children’s Perceptions of Bullying in England and Ijime in Japan: A Translation and Expansion of Kanetsuna (2009)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8234; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158234 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 855
Abstract
This is an English translation with some expansion of the article originally published in Japanese as a university bulletin in 2009. Previous research has found both differences and similarities between ijime in Japan and bullying in England. Bullying is often by pupils in [...] Read more.
This is an English translation with some expansion of the article originally published in Japanese as a university bulletin in 2009. Previous research has found both differences and similarities between ijime in Japan and bullying in England. Bullying is often by pupils in different classes or higher year groups whom the victim does not know very well; ijime is often by victims’ classmates whom the victim knows very well. However, it has not been shown whether these differences are found for all types of bullying, or how they relate to friendships generally and the impact of differing school systems. We aimed to see whether previously found differences between ijime and bullying could be replicated, and, if so, whether they held for six different types of victimization, and whether friendship characteristics were consistent with explaining why they occur. To investigate the role of friendships and their location, 1036 Japanese and 931 English secondary school pupils participated in a comparative study of perceptions of bullying and ijime. The previous differences were confirmed and found to hold irrespective of type of bullying. Japanese pupils mainly formed friendships on a class basis, English pupils on a broader basis including pupils in different years. In school, English pupils spent much time in the playground with their friends and saw this as a likely venue for bullying, whereas Japanese pupils spent more time in the classroom and saw this as a likely venue for ijime. The difference in friendship formation, together with differences in the organization of class-based teaching in the two countries, are hypothesized to play a significant role in explaining some differences between bullying and ijime. Full article
Article
The Effect of an Active Plant-Based System on Perceived Air Pollution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8233; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158233 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Active plant-based systems are emerging technologies that aim to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). A person’s olfactory system is able to recognize the perceived odor intensity of various materials relatively well, and in many cases, the nose seems to be a better perceiver [...] Read more.
Active plant-based systems are emerging technologies that aim to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). A person’s olfactory system is able to recognize the perceived odor intensity of various materials relatively well, and in many cases, the nose seems to be a better perceiver of pollutants than some equipment is. The aim of this study was to assess the odor coming out of two different test chambers in the SenseLab, where the participants were asked to evaluate blindly the level of acceptability, intensity, odor recognition, and preference at individual level with their noses. Two chambers were furnished with the same amount of new flooring material, and one of the chambers, Chamber A, also included an active plant-based system. The results showed that in general, the level of odor intensity was lower in Chamber B than in Chamber A, the level of acceptability was lower in Chamber A than in Chamber B, and the participants identified similar sources in both chambers. Finally, the preference was slightly higher for Chamber B over Chamber A. When people do not see the interior details of a room and have to rely on olfactory perception, they prefer a room without plants. Full article
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Article
Colorectal Cancer in Young and Older Adults in Uruguay: Changes in Recent Incidence and Mortality Trends
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158232 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Uruguay has the highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in Latin America. Previous studies reported a stable incidence and a slight increase in mortality among males. We aimed to assess colorectal cancer incidence (2002–2017) and mortality trends (1990–2017) by age groups and sex, using [...] Read more.
Uruguay has the highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in Latin America. Previous studies reported a stable incidence and a slight increase in mortality among males. We aimed to assess colorectal cancer incidence (2002–2017) and mortality trends (1990–2017) by age groups and sex, using data from the National Cancer Registry. Annual percent changes (APCs) were estimated using joinpoint regression models. We included 27,561 colorectal cancer cases and 25,403 deaths. We found an increasing incidence among both males and females aged 40–49, with annual increases of 3.1% (95%CI: 1.21–5.03) and 2.1% (95%CI: 0.49–3.66), respectively, and an increasein the rate in older males (70+) of 0.60% (95%CI: 0.02–1.20) per year between 2002 and 2017. Mortality remained stable among those younger than 50, whereas it decreased for older females aged 50–69 and 70+ (APC: −0.61% (−1.07–0.14) and −0.68% (−1.02–0.34), respectively), and increased for the oldest males (70+; APC: 0.74 (0.47–1.01)). In conclusion, we found rising colorectal cancer incidence accompanied by stable mortality in young adults. Sex disparities were also found among the older adults, with a more favorable pattern for females. Exposures to dietary and lifestyle risk factors, and inequalities in access to and awareness of screening programs, are probably among the main underlying causes and deserve further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle, Gender and Cancers)
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Article
A Bibliometric Analysis of 14,822 Researches on Myocardial Reperfusion Injury by Machine Learning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158231 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Myocardial ischemia is the major cause of death worldwide, and reperfusion is the standard intervention for myocardial ischemia. However, reperfusion may cause additional damage, known as myocardial reperfusion injury, for which there is still no effective therapy. This study aims to analyze the [...] Read more.
Myocardial ischemia is the major cause of death worldwide, and reperfusion is the standard intervention for myocardial ischemia. However, reperfusion may cause additional damage, known as myocardial reperfusion injury, for which there is still no effective therapy. This study aims to analyze the landscape of researches concerning myocardial reperfusion injury over the past three decades by machine learning. PubMed was searched for publications from 1990 to 2020 indexed under the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term “myocardial reperfusion injury” on 13 April 2021. MeSH analysis and Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) analyses were applied to reveal research hotspots. In total, 14,822 publications were collected and analyzed in this study. MeSH analyses revealed that time factors and apoptosis were the leading terms of the pathogenesis and treatment of myocardial reperfusion injury, respectively. In LDA analyses, research topics were classified into three clusters. Complex correlations were observed between topics of different clusters, and the prognosis is the most concerned field of the researchers. In conclusion, the number of publications on myocardial reperfusion injury increases during the past three decades, which mainly focused on prognosis, mechanism, and treatment. Prognosis is the most concerned field, whereas studies on mechanism and treatment are relatively lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Disease: Prevention, Intervention, Treatment and Care)
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Protocol
Tri-Response Police, Ambulance, Mental Health Crisis Models in Reducing Involuntary Detentions of Mentally Ill People: Protocol for a Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8230; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158230 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Police, ambulance and mental health tri-response services are a relatively new model of responding to people experiencing mental health crisis in the community, but limited evidence exists examining their efficacy. To date there have been no systematic reviews that have examined the association [...] Read more.
Police, ambulance and mental health tri-response services are a relatively new model of responding to people experiencing mental health crisis in the community, but limited evidence exists examining their efficacy. To date there have been no systematic reviews that have examined the association between the tri-response model and rates of involuntary detentions. A systematic review examining co-response models demonstrated possible reduction in involuntary detention, however, recommended further research. The aim of this protocol is to describe how we will systematically review the evidence base around the relationship of the police, ambulance mental health tri-response models in reducing involuntary detentions. We will search health, policing and grey literature databases and include clinical evaluations of any design. Risk of bias will be determined using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool and a narrative synthesis will be undertaken to synthesis key themes. Risk of bias and extracted data will be summarized in tables and results synthesis tabulated to identify patterns within the included studies. The findings will inform future research into the effectiveness of tri-response police, ambulance, and mental health models in reducing involuntary detentions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
Article
Work–Family Guilt in Spanish Parents: Analysis of the Measurement, Antecedents and Outcomes from a Gender Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158229 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 581
Abstract
This research work had three objectives: (1) to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Work–Family Guilt Scale, (2) to examine its invariance according to gender, and (3) to study the relationship between work–family guilt (WFG) and the different proposed [...] Read more.
This research work had three objectives: (1) to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Work–Family Guilt Scale, (2) to examine its invariance according to gender, and (3) to study the relationship between work–family guilt (WFG) and the different proposed antecedent (e.g., hours spent working, social support, rumination, and personality) or consequential factors (e.g., life satisfaction), noting any gender differences. The incidental sample comprised 225 parents who were in paid work and had at least one child attending nursery school (49.1% women; age of total sample = 36.88 on average). Multiple-group and confirmatory factor analyses, correlations, multiple regression, and moderation analyses were carried out. The WFGS reflected the same factorial structure in men and women, with two main factors: work interfering with family guilt (WIFG) and family interfering with work guilt (FIWG). No gender differences were found. The discrepancy associated with perfectionism was the only variable that was found to be a predictor of FIWG. The major predictors of WIFG were brooding from rumination and the number of hours spent working. WIFG was also associated with lower life satisfaction in women. The implications of these results are discussed, stressing the need to promote work–family reconciliation policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family Support and Children’s Health and Wellbeing)
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Article
Optimizing the Explosive Force of the Elite Level Football-Tennis Players through Plyometric and Specific Exercises
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158228 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 607
Abstract
The aim of the research was to implement an athletic program to improve the explosive force in order to optimize physical fitness at the level of elite football-tennis players and evaluate the progress made through specific tests using the Opto Jump. The research [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to implement an athletic program to improve the explosive force in order to optimize physical fitness at the level of elite football-tennis players and evaluate the progress made through specific tests using the Opto Jump. The research included 10 elite European and world-class players, on whom an experimental program was applied in order to improve the explosive force of the limbs in conditions of speed, endurance, and dynamic balance. Study tests: five vertical jumps on the spot, on the left/right leg; five back and forth jumps on the left/right leg; five left/right side jumps on the left/right leg; vertical jumps on both legs 60 s; BFS vertical jumps. For each test, the following parameters specific to the explosive force were statistically analyzed: contact time (s); flight time (s); jump height (cm), jump power (w/kg); RSI—Reactive Strength Index, defined as Height (m/s). In the study, the average value of the parameters specific to the jumps performed in each test was taken into account. During the study, the tests were performed and processed on the Opto Jump device and software. In all tests of the experiment monitored through Opto Jump, significant progress was made in the final test compared to the initial one, which demonstrates the efficiency of the physical training program implemented for the development of explosive force, with an impact on the sports performance of elite players. The most relevant results obtained for the left leg regarding the improvement of the explosive force of the lower limbs materialized in the jump height parameter was in the test of five vertical jumps on one leg on the spot, and for the right leg in the tests of: five back and forth jumps and five left/right side jumps. The most significant advances in the study were in the tests, in descending order of their weight: 60 s vertical jumps on both legs; five back-and-forth jumps and five left/right side jumps, five vertical jumps on one leg standing, and BFS vertical jumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
Article
Association of Parental Socioeconomic Status and Physical Activity with Development of Arterial Stiffness in Prepubertal Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158227 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The present study examined the prospective association of parental household income, education level, migration background, and physical activity (PA) behavior with the development of pulse wave velocity (PWV) in prepubertal children. A total of 223 children (initial age 6–8 years) were included in [...] Read more.
The present study examined the prospective association of parental household income, education level, migration background, and physical activity (PA) behavior with the development of pulse wave velocity (PWV) in prepubertal children. A total of 223 children (initial age 6–8 years) were included in this prospective school-based cohort study from 2014 to 2018. Parental socioeconomic status, migration background, and PA behavior were assessed by the use of questionnaires at both times points. PWV was measured by an oscillometric device at follow-up (2018). No significant association of household income, education level, and parental migration background with PWV in children after four years was found. However, a high level of maternal PA was related to a lower childhood PWV at follow-up (mean (95% CI) 4.6 (4.54–4.66) m/s) compared to children of mothers with a low PA behavior (mean (95% CI) 4.7 (4.64–4.77) m/s) (p = 0.049). Children of mothers with a high PA level revealed a beneficial arterial stiffness after four years. Little evidence for an association of socioeconomic status and migration background with childhood arterial stiffness was found. Increased parental PA seems to support the development of childhood vascular health and should be considered in the generation of future primary prevention strategies of childhood cardiovascular health. Full article
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Article
Adolescent-Reported Latino Fathers’ Food Parenting Practices and Family Meal Frequency Are Associated with Better Adolescent Dietary Intake
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158226 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Most studies of food-related parenting practices, parental meal involvement, and adolescent dietary intake have focused on maternal influences; studies of paternal influences, particularly among marginalized groups, are lacking. This study examined lower-income, Latino fathers’ food parenting practices and involvement in planning meals, buying/preparing [...] Read more.
Most studies of food-related parenting practices, parental meal involvement, and adolescent dietary intake have focused on maternal influences; studies of paternal influences, particularly among marginalized groups, are lacking. This study examined lower-income, Latino fathers’ food parenting practices and involvement in planning meals, buying/preparing foods, and family meal frequency, separately and in combination, to identify relationships with adolescent food intake. Baseline data were used from Latino adolescents (10–14 years, n = 191, 49% boys) participating with their fathers in a community-based overweight/obesity prevention intervention. Fathers reported sociodemographic characteristics. Adolescents reported frequency of fathers’ food parenting practices, fathers’ food/meal involvement, and family meals and participated in 24 h dietary recalls. The analysis included regression models using GLM (generalized linear mixed model) and PLM (post GLM processing) procedures. Most fathers were married, employed full-time, and had annual incomes below USD 50,000. Favorable fathers’ food parenting practices were associated with adolescent intake of more fruit and vegetables and fewer sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets/salty snacks, and less fast food (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). No independent effects of family meal frequency or fathers’ food/meal involvement were observed on adolescent dietary outcomes. Additional analyses showed favorable food parenting practices in combination with frequent family meals were associated with adolescents having a higher intake of fruit (p = 0.011). Latino fathers can have an important positive influence on adolescent dietary intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behaviors and Health Outcomes in Low-Income Populations)
Article
Psychometric Properties and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire among Adolescent Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158225 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 506
Abstract
The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate violent thinking through two subscales examining macho attitudes and the acceptance of violence. This study analyzed the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish version of the MVQ questionnaire in [...] Read more.
The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate violent thinking through two subscales examining macho attitudes and the acceptance of violence. This study analyzed the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish version of the MVQ questionnaire in a large sample of 1933 Spanish adolescents. An online questionnaire was used to collect variables, such as sociodemographic and sexism data. The factor structure showed good fit indices in Spanish adolescents, which were similar to the original scale. The exploratory analysis yielded a first factor that explained 11.3% of the total variance and a second factor that explained 10.8% of the total variance. The Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) (0.902), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) (0.90), Normed Fit Index (NNFI) (0.85), and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (0.86) suggested that the model fit the data adequately (with values ≥ 0.90) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) (≤0.10) values indicative of an adequate fit. This study contributes a Spanish-language validated tool to measure machismo and the acceptance of violence among adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Advances in Research on Human Behavior)
Article
Hospital Processes and the Nurse-Patient Interaction in Breast Cancer Care. Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158224 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
(1) Background: Evidence suggests that organizational processes of hospitals have an impact on patient-professional interactions. Within the nurse-patient interaction, nurses play a key role providing social support. Factors influencing the nurse-patient interaction have seldomly been researched. We aimed to examine whether the process [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Evidence suggests that organizational processes of hospitals have an impact on patient-professional interactions. Within the nurse-patient interaction, nurses play a key role providing social support. Factors influencing the nurse-patient interaction have seldomly been researched. We aimed to examine whether the process organization in hospitals is associated with breast cancer patients’ perceived social support from nurses.; (2) Methods: Data analysis based on a cross-sectional patient survey (2979 breast cancer patients, 83 German hospitals) and information on hospital structures. Associations between process organization and perceived social support were analyzed with logistic hierarchical regression models adjusted for patient characteristics and hospital structures.; (3) Results: Most patients were 40–69 years old and classified with UICC stage II or III. Native language, age and hospital ownership status showed significant associations to the perception of social support. Patients treated in hospitals with better process organization at admission (OR 3.61; 95%-CI 1.67, 7.78) and during the hospital stay (OR 2.11; 95%-CI 1.04; 4.29) perceived significantly more social support from nurses.; (4) Conclusions: Designing a supportive nursing work environment and improving process organization in hospitals may create conditions conducive for a supportive patient-nurse interaction. More research is needed to better understand mechanisms behind the associations found. Full article
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Article
Musculoskeletal Disorders’ Classification Proposal for Application in Occupational Medicine
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8223; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158223 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Occupational-specific classifications of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are scarce and do not answer specific clinical questions. Thus, a specific classification was developed and proposed, covering criteria applicable to daily clinical activity. It was considered that the disorder development process is the same across all [...] Read more.
Occupational-specific classifications of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are scarce and do not answer specific clinical questions. Thus, a specific classification was developed and proposed, covering criteria applicable to daily clinical activity. It was considered that the disorder development process is the same across all work-related MSDs (WRMSDs). Concepts of clinical pathology were applied to the characteristics of WRMSDs pathophysiology, cellular and tissue alterations. Then, the correlation of the inflammatory mechanisms with the injury onset mode was graded into four levels (MSDs 0–3). Criteria of legal, occupational and internal medicine, semiology, physiology and orthopaedics, image medicine and diagnostics were applied. Next, the classification was analysed by experts, two occupational physicians, two physiatrists and occupational physicians and one orthopaedist. This approach will allow WRMSD prevention and improve therapeutic management, preventing injuries from becoming chronic and facilitating communication between occupational health physicians and the other specialities. The four levels tool relate aetiopathogenic, clinical, occupational and radiological concepts into a single classification. This allows for improving the ability to determine a WRMSD and understanding what preventive and therapeutic measures should be taken, avoiding chronicity. The developed tool is straightforward, easy to understand and suitable for WRMSDs, facilitating communication between occupational physicians and physicians from other specialities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation of Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Article
The Value of Active Arts Engagement on Health and Well-Being of Older Adults: A Nation-Wide Participatory Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158222 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
An emerging body of research indicates that active arts engagement can enhance older adults’ health and experienced well-being, but scientific evidence is still fragmented. There is a research gap in understanding arts engagement grounded in a multidimensional conceptualization of the value of health [...] Read more.
An emerging body of research indicates that active arts engagement can enhance older adults’ health and experienced well-being, but scientific evidence is still fragmented. There is a research gap in understanding arts engagement grounded in a multidimensional conceptualization of the value of health and well-being from older participants’ perspectives. This Dutch nation-wide study aimed to explore the broader value of arts engagement on older people’s perceived health and well-being in 18 participatory arts-based projects (dance, music, singing, theater, visual arts, video, and spoken word) for community-dwelling older adults and those living in long term care facilities. In this study, we followed a participatory design with narrative- and arts-based inquiry. We gathered micro-narratives from older people and their (in)formal caregivers (n = 470). The findings demonstrate that arts engagement, according to participants, resulted in (1) positive feelings, (2) personal and artistic growth, and (3) increased meaningful social interactions. This study concludes that art-based practices promote older people’s experienced well-being and increase the quality of life of older people. This study emphasizes the intrinsic value of arts engagement and has implications for research and evaluation of arts engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Aging)
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Article
Identifying Factors Influencing Attention in Adolescents with a Co-Created Questionnaire: A Citizen Science Approach with Secondary Students in Barcelona, Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158221 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Studies on factors that can influence attention in healthy adolescents are recent and focus on recurrent topics. Students’ contribution to public health research often revolves around collecting data but rarely around creating data collection instruments. The ATENC!Ó project reunited secondary students and scientists [...] Read more.
Studies on factors that can influence attention in healthy adolescents are recent and focus on recurrent topics. Students’ contribution to public health research often revolves around collecting data but rarely around creating data collection instruments. The ATENC!Ó project reunited secondary students and scientists to create a questionnaire including factors that students thought could affect their attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess whether the factors included in this questionnaire had an effect on attention in adolescents. A total of 1667 students (13–16 years old) from 28 schools in Barcelona performed a validated attention test and answered the questionnaire. The response speed consistency (attentiveness), expressed as hit reaction time standard error (HRT-SE, in ms), was used as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using conditional linear regression with school as strata, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and further stratified by gender and maternal social class. Some factors showed a negative influence on attention, including taking medication and not reading regularly. We found a significant 14.3% (95% confidence interval: 3.4%, 25.3%) higher median of HRT-SE (increase inattentiveness) among students who reported not having a good relationship with classmates. Students’ input into research is relevant for advancing the knowledge production in public health. Full article
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Review
Factors That Influence Climate Change-Related Mortality in the United States: An Integrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158220 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Global atmospheric warming leads to climate change that results in a cascade of events affecting human mortality directly and indirectly. The factors that influence climate change-related mortality within the peer-reviewed literature were examined using Whittemore and Knafl’s framework for an integrative review. Ninety-eight [...] Read more.
Global atmospheric warming leads to climate change that results in a cascade of events affecting human mortality directly and indirectly. The factors that influence climate change-related mortality within the peer-reviewed literature were examined using Whittemore and Knafl’s framework for an integrative review. Ninety-eight articles were included in the review from three databases—PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus—with literature filtered by date, country, and keywords. Articles included in the review address human mortality related to climate change. The review yielded two broad themes in the literature that addressed the factors that influence climate change-related mortality. The broad themes are environmental changes, and social and demographic factors. The meteorological impacts of climate change yield a complex cascade of environmental and weather events that affect ambient temperatures, air quality, drought, wildfires, precipitation, and vector-, food-, and water-borne pathogens. The identified social and demographic factors were related to the social determinants of health. The environmental changes from climate change amplify the existing health determinants that influence mortality within the United States. Mortality data, national weather and natural disaster data, electronic medical records, and health care provider use of International Classification of Disease (ICD) 10 codes must be linked to identify climate change events to capture the full extent of climate change upon population health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Nurse Partnership for Health Promotion)
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Article
Crop Production and Agricultural Carbon Emissions: Relationship Diagnosis and Decomposition Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158219 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Modern agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, and agriculture has become the second biggest source of carbon emissions in China. In this context, it is necessary for China to study the nexus of agricultural economic growth and carbon emissions. Taking Jilin province [...] Read more.
Modern agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, and agriculture has become the second biggest source of carbon emissions in China. In this context, it is necessary for China to study the nexus of agricultural economic growth and carbon emissions. Taking Jilin province as an example, this paper applied the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis and a decoupling analysis to examine the relationship between crop production and agricultural carbon emissions during 2000–2018, and it further provided a decomposition analysis of the changes in agricultural carbon emissions using the log mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. The results were as follows: (1) Based on the results of CO2 EKC estimation, an N-shaped EKC was found; in particular, the upward trend in agricultural carbon emissions has not changed recently. (2) According to the results of the decoupling analysis, expansive coupling occurred for 9 years, which was followed by weak decoupling for 5 years, and strong decoupling and strong coupling occurred for 2 years each. There was no stable evolutionary path from coupling to decoupling, and this has remained true recently. (3) We used the LMDI method to decompose the driving factors of agricultural carbon emissions into four factors: the agricultural carbon emission intensity effect, structure effect, economic effect, and labor force effect. From a policymaking perspective, we integrated the results of both the EKC and the decoupling analysis and conducted a detailed decomposition analysis, focusing on several key time points. Agricultural economic growth was found to have played a significant role on many occasions in the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while agricultural carbon emission intensity was important to the decline in agricultural carbon emissions. Specifically, the four factors’ driving direction in the context of agricultural carbon emissions was not stable. We also found that the change in agricultural carbon emissions was affected more by economic policy than by environmental policy. Finally, we put forward policy suggestions for low-carbon agricultural development in Jilin province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact Assessment by Green Processes)
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Article
Concerns and Support after One Year of COVID-19 in Austria: A Qualitative Study Using Content Analysis with 1505 Participants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158218 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 697
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent governmental restrictions have had a major impact on the daily lives of Austrians and negatively affected their mental health. A representative sample of N = 1505 individuals was recruited via Qualtrics® to participate in an online survey [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent governmental restrictions have had a major impact on the daily lives of Austrians and negatively affected their mental health. A representative sample of N = 1505 individuals was recruited via Qualtrics® to participate in an online survey between 23 December 2020 and 4 January 2021. A qualitative study design was used to determine the problem areas that emerged since the beginning of the pandemic (question 1), the factors that were the source of the greatest current concern (question 2), the biggest worries when thinking about the future (question 3), and what the most important source of support (question 4) during the pandemic was. The written responses were analyzed using conventional content analysis following a framework for qualitative research and reported in the form of descriptive statistics. Restrictions imposed by the government, sociopolitical developments, work- and health-related issues, and economic disruptions were identified as being the greatest concerns. Conversely, social contacts within and outside the family were the most important source of support, followed by recreational activities and distraction. Greater consideration should be given to psychosocial factors in future decisions to contain the pandemic. More detailed qualitative research, in particular, to collect the personal experience of more vulnerable groups such as young people, women, and the unemployed, is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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Article
Toward Environmental Sustainability, Health, and Equity: How the Psychological Characteristics of College Students Are Reflected in Understanding Sustainable Development Goals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158217 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 706
Abstract
This study aimed to identify how the psychological characteristics of college students are reflected in understanding sustainable development goals (SDGs) by examining college students’ psychological characteristics, including attitude, interests, motivations, and self-efficacy, through the Sustainable Development Goals Psychological Inventory (SDGPI). The relationships among [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify how the psychological characteristics of college students are reflected in understanding sustainable development goals (SDGs) by examining college students’ psychological characteristics, including attitude, interests, motivations, and self-efficacy, through the Sustainable Development Goals Psychological Inventory (SDGPI). The relationships among SDGs attitude, SDGs interest, SDGs motivation, and SDGs self-efficacy were analyzed by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. In addition, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance were used to explore the differences among the college student groups in terms of gender, grade, and major in relation to attitude and personal characteristics. Attitude scores based on regression analysis were used to predict college students’ interest, motivation, and self-efficacy in relation to the SDGs. According to the results, (a) the college students considered the three most important SDGs to be good health and well-being (SDG 3) (49.72%), quality education (SDG 4) (41.39%), and no poverty (SDG 1) (32.22%), while the three least important SDGs were decent work and economic growth (SDG 8) (41.11%), partnerships for the goals (SDG 17) (38.06%), and response consumption and institutions (SDG 12) (30.83%); (b) the SDGPI had a high reliability, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.942; (c) there was a significant positive correlation between attitude and the variables of interest, motivation, and self-efficacy; (d) differences in attitudes, interest, and motivation between men and women were distinct and women scored much higher in these three subscales than men; (e) attitude could explain significant variance in interest, motivation and self-efficacy. In addition, attitude, interest, and motivation could account for self-efficacy. This study supports the development of sustainability education (SE) at the college level by providing new insights into college students’ psychological characteristics in relation to the SDGs. Full article
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Article
Does Environmental Policy Affect Green Total Factor Productivity? Quasi-Natural Experiment Based on China’s Air Pollution Control and Prevention Action Plan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158216 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
It is the scientific way to promote the transformation and optimization of an industrial structure to promote the improvement of its green total factor productivity (GTFP) by formulating environmental regulation policies. Based on the GTFP panel data of 30 provinces in [...] Read more.
It is the scientific way to promote the transformation and optimization of an industrial structure to promote the improvement of its green total factor productivity (GTFP) by formulating environmental regulation policies. Based on the GTFP panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2004 to 2017, this paper takes the “Air Pollution Control and Prevention Action Plan” (APCP Action Plan) as the proxy dummy variable of environmental regulation, and uses the difference-in-differences (DID) model to explore the impact of the implementation of the APCP Action Plan on GTFP. In addition, by constructing the industrial structure optimization index, this paper analyzes how the APCP Action Plan policy affects GTFP through the transformation and optimization of industrial structure. The following basic conclusions are obtained: First, environmental regulation policies like the APCP Action Plan can improve GTFP. Second, the APCP Action Plan has regional heterogeneity in promoting GTFP in different regions. The policy only significantly affects the GTFP in the Pearl River Delta region in southern China. Third, the “quantity” and “quality” of the optimization of industrial structure will weaken the promoting effect of the APCP Action Plan on GTFP. In contrast, the rationalization of industrial structure will aggravate this promoting effect. Full article
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Article
Mouthwash Use and the Risk of Oral, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Cancer. A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158215 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Objective: The main aim of this study was to test whether the use of mouthwash is associated with subtypes of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and to test the potential risk of SCCHN depending on the mouthwash use duration, [...] Read more.
Objective: The main aim of this study was to test whether the use of mouthwash is associated with subtypes of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and to test the potential risk of SCCHN depending on the mouthwash use duration, frequency, or alcoholic content. Materials and methods: We performed a meta-analysis using Web of Science and Scopus databases to detect the risk change associated with mouthwash use depending on the alcohol content, duration and frequency of use, and anatomical location. We used a random-effects model with the Sidik–Jonkman estimator for effect size model measures. Results: We included 17 studies in the meta-analysis containing 17,085 cases and 20,032 controls. The risk difference for SCCHN between mouthwash users and non-users was minimal, with a value of −0.02 [−0.05, 0.01]. Alcoholic mouthwash use was associated with a minimal decrease in risk (of −0.01 [−0.07, 0.05]). Frequent usage of mouthwash was associated with a statistically significant risk increase for SCCHN but the risk increase was marginal (0.04, [0.01, 0.06]). Conclusions: Overall, our study failed to show a statistically significant correlation between mouthwash use and the risk of SCCHN. The only statistically significant correlation that we could identify was between frequent usage and SCCHN, potentially caused by prolonged contact between some constituents of mouthwash (possibly alcohol) and the oral epithelium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oral Oncology)
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Article
Parent-Implemented Hanen Program It Takes Two to Talk®: An Exploratory Study in Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158214 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Parent-implemented interventions are a highly common approach for enhancing communication and linguistic abilities of late talkers, involving a population that shows a small expressive vocabulary in the absence of other deficits that could explain it. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of [...] Read more.
Parent-implemented interventions are a highly common approach for enhancing communication and linguistic abilities of late talkers, involving a population that shows a small expressive vocabulary in the absence of other deficits that could explain it. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of a parent-implemented language intervention, It Takes Two to Talk®—The Hanen Program® for Parents (ITTT), to a clinician-directed therapy. Participants were 17 families and their late-talking children: 10 families took part in ITTT and 7 in the clinician-directed modality. The outcomes in the social communication domain were more favorable for the ITTT group, but there were no significant differences between groups as regards vocabulary and syntax. In terms of parents, the research focused on examining if there were significant changes in parents’ stress and their perceptions of their children’s communication abilities. No differences were observed in the level of stress. In contrast, the group that received the ITTT program significantly altered their perceptions of their children’s communication difficulties in comparison with the clinician-directed therapy. These results have implications in the clinical management of late-talking children, and they are discussed in terms of evidence-based practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Education and Care)
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Article
The Health Behaviour of German Outpatient Caregivers in Relation to the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed-Methods Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158213 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 614
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected outpatient caregivers in a particular way. While the German population becomes increasingly older, the number of people in need of care has also increased. The health and, thus, the health behaviour of employees in the outpatient care become [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected outpatient caregivers in a particular way. While the German population becomes increasingly older, the number of people in need of care has also increased. The health and, thus, the health behaviour of employees in the outpatient care become relevant to maintain working capacity and performance in the long term. The aims of the study were (1) to examine the health behaviour and (2) to explore pandemic-related perceived change of health behaviour among outpatient caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a mixed-methods study, 15 problem-centred interviews and a web-based cross-sectional survey (N = 171) were conducted with outpatient caregivers working in Northern Germany. Interviewees reported partially poorer eating behaviour, higher coffee consumption, lower physical activity, skipping breaks more often and less sleep duration and quality during the pandemic. Some quantitative findings indicate the same tendencies. A majority of participants were smokers and reported higher stress perception due to the pandemic. Preventive behaviour, such as wearing PPE or hand hygiene, was increased among interviewees compared to the pre-pandemic period. Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively affect outpatient caregivers’ health behaviour, e.g., eating/drinking behaviour and physical activity. Therefore, employers in outpatient care should develop workplace health promotion measures to support their employees in conducting more health-promoting behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Unfixed Movement Route Model, Non-Overcrowding and Social Distancing Reduce the Spread of COVID-19 in Sporting Facilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158212 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Localized outbreaks of COVID-19 have been reported in sporting facilities. This study used the Agent-based Modeling (ABM) method to analyze the transmission rate of COVID-19 in different sporting models, sporting spaces per capita, and situations of gathering, which contributes to understanding how COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Localized outbreaks of COVID-19 have been reported in sporting facilities. This study used the Agent-based Modeling (ABM) method to analyze the transmission rate of COVID-19 in different sporting models, sporting spaces per capita, and situations of gathering, which contributes to understanding how COVID-19 transmits in sports facilities. The simulation results show that the transmission rate of COVID-19 was higher under the Fixed Movement Route (FMR) than under the Unfixed Movement Route (UMR) in 10 different sporting spaces per capita (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 m2) (p = 0.000). For both FMR and UMR, the larger the sporting space per capita, the lower the virus transmission rate. Additionally, when the sporting space per capita increases from 4 m2 to 5 m2, the virus transmission rate decreases most significantly (p = 0.000). In the FMR model with a per capita sporting space of 5 m2, minimizing gathering (no more than three people) could significantly slow down the transmission rate of the COVID-19 virus (p < 0.05). This study concluded that: (1) The UMR model is suggested in training facilities or playing grounds; (2) The sporting space should be non-overcrowding, and it is recommended that the sporting space per capita in the sporting grounds should not be less than 5 m2; (3) It is important to maintain safe social distancing and minimize gathering (no more than three people) when exercising. Full article
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Article
Teaching in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Pilot Study on Teachers’ Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in an Italian Sample
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158211 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on teachers, particularly on their self-esteem and self-efficacy, their difficulty in the transition to distance learning, the difficulty of students, and specially of students with learning disabilities (LDs students), [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on teachers, particularly on their self-esteem and self-efficacy, their difficulty in the transition to distance learning, the difficulty of students, and specially of students with learning disabilities (LDs students), as perceived by teachers. 226 teachers were invited to complete an online questionnaire. Our results showed lower self-esteem and lower self-efficacy by the teachers compared with the normative sample. Self-esteem and self-efficacy also decrease in teachers with greater service seniority at work. Teachers perceived a greater difficulty in students than in their own difficulty. The concentration of the school system’s efforts on the massive and, for long periods, exclusive organisation of distance learning risks favouring only cognitive aspects to the detriment of affective dynamics. This aspect could make teaching more complex for teachers and learning poorer for students, impoverishing the complex relational process that forms the basis of the learning process. Full article
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Review
Stigma and Endometriosis: A Brief Overview and Recommendations to Improve Psychosocial Well-Being and Diagnostic Delay
by , , and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158210 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 899
Abstract
Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease that affects approximately 1 in 10 women of reproductive age. Symptoms of severe pelvic pain, infertility, fatigue, and abnormal menstruation can cause significant negative effects on an individual’s physical and mental health, including interactions with their family, [...] Read more.
Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease that affects approximately 1 in 10 women of reproductive age. Symptoms of severe pelvic pain, infertility, fatigue, and abnormal menstruation can cause significant negative effects on an individual’s physical and mental health, including interactions with their family, friends, and health care providers. Stigma associated with endometriosis has been under-studied and is rarely discussed in current literature. Herein, this paper aims to provide a brief overview of published literature to explore and establish the plausibility of stigma as a driver of suboptimal psychosocial well-being and diagnostic delay among individuals living with endometriosis. We present the clinical characteristics and physical and mental health consequences associated with endometriosis, highlight several theoretical constructs of stigma, and review the limited studies documenting women’s lived experiences of endometriosis-related stigma. To mitigate harmful effects of this phenomenon, we recommend increasing efforts to assess the prevalence of and to characterize endometriosis-related stigma, implementing awareness campaigns, and developing interventions that combat the multidimensional negative effects of stigma on timely care, treatment, and quality of life for individuals living with endometriosis. Full article
Article
Romanian Students’ Environment-Related Routines during COVID-19 Home Confinement: Water, Plastic, and Paper Consumption
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158209 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
The disruptive force of the COVID-19 pandemic is lessening in power and plans are being made for the postcrisis period, among which increasing the sustainability of higher education is of significant importance. The study aims at establishing students’ existing environment-related routines during their [...] Read more.
The disruptive force of the COVID-19 pandemic is lessening in power and plans are being made for the postcrisis period, among which increasing the sustainability of higher education is of significant importance. The study aims at establishing students’ existing environment-related routines during their home confinement, as a basis for applying green measures to campus living once academic life is resumed with the physical presence of students. The collected data rely on self-reported information provided by 816 students from Politehnica University of Timisoara (Romania), collected via an online, anonymous survey. The novelty of the approach is that household environment-related routines are investigated during a crisis period, with the possibility to build upon the results to implement tailored measures to encourage or diminish environmentally relevant consumption by young, highly skilled individuals. The students display a moderate awareness of environmental issues and indicate consumption routines that may be steered towards an increased sustainability-conscious campus life, through the combined intervention of the university, city administration, and stakeholder involvement. The findings are used to explore the possible directions for action towards increasing or contributing to the territorial sustainability in the socio-ecological context of Timisoara, the largest university city in the western part of Romania via educational, managerial and policy interventions. Full article
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Article
Association of Vaping and Respiratory Health among Youth in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158208 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 736
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of electronic nicotine product (ENP) use and its respiratory manifestations in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the US. Cross-sectional evidence from 9750 adolescents in wave 3 (October 2015–October 2016) of the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of electronic nicotine product (ENP) use and its respiratory manifestations in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the US. Cross-sectional evidence from 9750 adolescents in wave 3 (October 2015–October 2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) survey was used. Adjusting for demographics, lifetime number of cigarettes and cigars used, home rules about tobacco use, and tobacco used by other household members, we used logistic regression models to examine associations between ENP use and its respiratory manifestations in the past year. Among 9750 adolescents, 12% (n = 1105) used ENP in the past year. Compared to non-users, past-year ENP-users had 37% higher odds of wheezing in general (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.37, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.71, p = 0.005) and higher odds of wheezing 4–12 times or >12 times per year versus no wheezing (AOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.01–2.46, p = 0.05 and AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.04–6.41, p = 0.04, respectively). Additionally, odds of dry cough at night were 23% higher among ENP-users than among non-users (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.04–1.46, p = 0.02). There was no association between past-year ENP use and exercise-induced wheezing or asthma diagnosis. Among those with asthma, there was no evidence of an association between ENP use and long-acting inhaler or quick-relief inhaler use. ENP use among adolescents is associated with increased frequency of wheezing and dry cough. Early recognition of pulmonary clinical manifestations among young ENP users should be critical considerations in regulatory and prevention efforts to protect public health, and clinical efforts to prevent progression to serious pulmonary complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Tobacco and Cannabis Use)
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Article
Issues and Challenges in the Application of the IEUBK Model in the Health Risk Assessment of Lead: A Case Study from Blantyre Malawi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158207 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The risk assessment of lead (Pb) requires the use of biokinetic models to translate measured concentrations of Pb in food and environmental media into blood lead (BPb). The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic [...] Read more.
The risk assessment of lead (Pb) requires the use of biokinetic models to translate measured concentrations of Pb in food and environmental media into blood lead (BPb). The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in the health risk assessment of Pb among children in Blantyre. Children (152) aged 1–6 years were recruited into this cross-sectional study, and foods, house dust, playground soil, water, and venous blood (1 mL) were collected and analyzed for Pb. A seven-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect food consumption data. The concentrations of Pb ranged from 0.01 to 3.3 mg/kg in food, 2.3 to 265 mg/kg and 1.5 to 482 mg/kg in house dust and playground soil, respectively, as well as 2.0 µg/dL to 50.4 µg/dL and 6.8 to 39.2 µg/dL for measured and predicted BPb, respectively. Various statistical tests indicated less than satisfactory agreement between measured and predicted BPb values. Despite the lack of reliable food consumption data and other limitations, both the predicted and measured BPb values indicate that children in Blantyre are exposed to high levels of Pb, largely through food and soil as a minor source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Metals Toxicology)
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Review
Biopsychosocial Factors during the Perinatal Period: Risks, Preventative Factors, and Implications for Healthcare Professionals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158206 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Women face risks to their wellbeing during the perinatal period of pregnancy. However, there is a dearth of information on perinatal risk factors within the biopsychosocial paradigm. Emphasis is often placed on biological components associated with pregnancy and women’s health. However, psychological and [...] Read more.
Women face risks to their wellbeing during the perinatal period of pregnancy. However, there is a dearth of information on perinatal risk factors within the biopsychosocial paradigm. Emphasis is often placed on biological components associated with pregnancy and women’s health. However, psychological and social determinants of health are integral during the perinatal period, and mental wellness is often a determinant for positive maternal and neonatal health outcomes. This article reviews risk factors of perinatal wellness (e.g., physical and nutritional concerns, trauma, discrimination, adverse childhood events) and highlights protective factors for women in their perinatal period. Healthcare professionals can support perinatal health by focusing on culturally and contextually appropriate research and prevention, providing equal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare information and services, providing quality education and training for helping professionals, and supporting policies for positive sexual and reproductive women’s healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
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Systematic Review
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Children with Special Health Care Needs and Their Parents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158205 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Context: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an emerging treatment for improving psychological well-being. Objective: To summarize research evaluating the effects of ACT on psychological well-being in children with special health care needs (SHCN) and their parents. Data Sources: An electronic literature search [...] Read more.
Context: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an emerging treatment for improving psychological well-being. Objective: To summarize research evaluating the effects of ACT on psychological well-being in children with special health care needs (SHCN) and their parents. Data Sources: An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid/EMBASE and PsycINFO (January 2000–April 2021). Study Selection: Included were studies that assessed ACT in children with SHCN (ages 0–17y) and/or parents of children with SHCN and had a comparator group. Data Extraction: Descriptive data were synthesized and presented in a tabular format, and data on relevant outcomes (e.g., depressive symptoms, stress, avoidance and fusion) were used in the meta-analyses to explore the effectiveness of ACT (administered independently with no other psychological therapy) compared to no treatment. Results: Ten studies were identified (child (7) and parent (3)). In children with SHCN, ACT was more effective than no treatment at helping depressive symptoms (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −4.27, 95% CI: −5.20, −3.34; p < 0.001) and avoidance and fusion (SMD = −1.64, 95% CI: −3.24, −0.03; p = 0.05), but not stress. In parents of children with SHCN, ACT may help psychological inflexibility (SMD = −0.77, 95% CI: −1.07, −0.47; p < 0.01). Limitations: There was considerable statistical heterogeneity in three of the six meta-analyses. Conclusions: There is some evidence that ACT may help with depressive symptoms in children with SHCN and psychological inflexibility in their parents. Research on the efficacy of ACT for a variety of children with SHCN and their parents is especially limited, and future research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience Across the Life Span)
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