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Article

Oxidative Stress in Non-Dialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

1
Nephrology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario, INCLIVA, Universidad de Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Service of Clinical Analysis, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología-INCLIVA, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, FISABIO, Universidad de Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7806; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18157806
Received: 23 June 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 22 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Kidney Disease: The Global Challenge)
Background: Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality at any stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Moreover, the high rate of cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients is associated with an accelerated atherosclerosis process that likely starts at the early stages of CKD. Thus, traditional and non-traditional or uremic-related factors represent a link between CKD and cardiovascular risk. Among non-conventional risk factors, particular focus has been placed on anaemia, mineral and bone disorders, inflammation, malnutrition and oxidative stress and, in this regard, connections have been reported between oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients. Methods: We evaluated the oxidation process in different molecular lines (proteins, lipids and genetic material) in 155 non-dialysis patients at different stages of CKD and 45 healthy controls. To assess oxidative stress status, we analyzed oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH) and other oxidation indicators, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). Results: An active grade of oxidative stress was found from the early stages of CKD onwards, which affected all of the molecular lines studied. We observed a heightened oxidative state (indicated by a higher level of oxidized molecules together with decreased levels of antioxidant molecules) as kidney function declined. Furthermore, oxidative stress-related alterations were significantly greater in CKD patients than in the control group. Conclusions: CKD patients exhibit significantly higher oxidative stress than healthy individuals, and these alterations intensify as eGFR declines, showing significant differences between CKD stages. Thus, future research is warranted to provide clearer results in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; chronic kidney disease; cardiovascular disease oxidative stress; chronic kidney disease; cardiovascular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomás-Simó, P.; D’Marco, L.; Romero-Parra, M.; Tormos-Muñoz, M.C.; Sáez, G.; Torregrosa, I.; Estañ-Capell, N.; Miguel, A.; Gorriz, J.L.; Puchades, M.J. Oxidative Stress in Non-Dialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7806. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18157806

AMA Style

Tomás-Simó P, D’Marco L, Romero-Parra M, Tormos-Muñoz MC, Sáez G, Torregrosa I, Estañ-Capell N, Miguel A, Gorriz JL, Puchades MJ. Oxidative Stress in Non-Dialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):7806. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18157806

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomás-Simó, Patricia, Luis D’Marco, María Romero-Parra, Mari C. Tormos-Muñoz, Guillermo Sáez, Isidro Torregrosa, Nuria Estañ-Capell, Alfonso Miguel, José L. Gorriz, and María J. Puchades 2021. "Oxidative Stress in Non-Dialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 7806. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18157806

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