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Article

A Novel Internet of Energy Based Optimal Multi-Agent Control Scheme for Microgrid including Renewable Energy Resources

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Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah, Basrah 61001, Iraq
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Department of Electrical Techniques, Qurna Technique Institute, Southern Technical University, Basra 61016, Iraq
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Center for Research on Microgrids (CROM), Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
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Civil Engineering Department, Hydraulics, Energy and Environment/Profesor Aranguren 3, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Shu-Yuan Pan, Li-Chi Chiang, Yu-Pin Lin and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158146
Received: 9 June 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 31 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering for Sustainable Environment)
The increasing integration of Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) in distribution networks forms the Networked Renewable Energy Resources (NRERs). The cooperative Peer-to-Peer (P2P) control architecture is able to fully exploit the resilience and flexibility of NRERs. This study proposes a multi-agent system to achieve P2P control of NRERs based Internet of Things (IoT). The control system is fully distributed and contains two control layers operated in the agent of each RER. For primary control, a droop control is adopted by each RER-agent for localized power sharing. For secondary control, a distributed diffusion algorithm is proposed for arbitrary power sharing among RERs. The proposed levels communication system is implemented to explain the data exchange between the distribution network system and the cloud server. The local communication level utilizes the Internet Protocol (IP)/Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is used as the protocol for the global communication level. The effectiveness of the proposed system is validated by numerical simulation with the modified IEEE 9 node test feeder. The controller proposed in this paper achieved savings of 20.65% for the system, 25.99% for photovoltaic, 35.52 for diesel generator, 24.59 for batteries, and 52.34% for power loss. View Full-Text
Keywords: renewable energy resources; diffusion algorithm; IoT; IEEE microgrid; cooperative control; cloud platform renewable energy resources; diffusion algorithm; IoT; IEEE microgrid; cooperative control; cloud platform
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alhasnawi, B.N.; Jasim, B.H.; Rahman, Z.-A.S.A.; Guerrero, J.M.; Esteban, M.D. A Novel Internet of Energy Based Optimal Multi-Agent Control Scheme for Microgrid including Renewable Energy Resources. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8146. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158146

AMA Style

Alhasnawi BN, Jasim BH, Rahman Z-ASA, Guerrero JM, Esteban MD. A Novel Internet of Energy Based Optimal Multi-Agent Control Scheme for Microgrid including Renewable Energy Resources. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):8146. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158146

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alhasnawi, Bilal N., Basil H. Jasim, Zain-Aldeen S.A. Rahman, Josep M. Guerrero, and M. D. Esteban 2021. "A Novel Internet of Energy Based Optimal Multi-Agent Control Scheme for Microgrid including Renewable Energy Resources" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 8146. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158146

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