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Identification of Novel Simulants for Toxic Industrial Chemicals and Chemical Warfare Agents for Human Decontamination Studies: A Systematic Review and Categorisation of Physicochemical Characteristics

Centre for Radiation, Chemicals and Environmental Hazards (CRCE), Public Health England, Chilton OX11 0RQ, UK
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Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8681; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18168681
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 13 August 2021 / Accepted: 15 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Exposures and Public Health Interventions)
Chemical simulants have long been used in human trials of mass decontamination to determine the efficacy of decontamination interventions against more toxic agents. Until now, reliance has mostly been on individual chemicals as surrogates to specific agents (e.g., methyl salicylate for sulphur mustard). A literature review was conducted to identify chemicals that had been previously tested on human volunteers and that represent diverse physicochemical characteristics in order to create a repository for chemical simulants. Of the 171 unique chemicals identified, 78 were discounted for the risk they could pose to human volunteers, 39 were deemed suitable for use, and a further 54 were considered to be possible simulants but would require further research. Suitable simulants included both solid and liquid chemicals spanning a wide range of physicochemical properties including molecular weight, octanol/water partition coefficient, vapour pressure, and solubility. This review identifies an array of potential simulants suitable for use in human volunteer decontamination studies and is of relevance to future studies on systemic absorption and surface decontamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: human volunteer; mass decontamination; simulants; CWA; TIC human volunteer; mass decontamination; simulants; CWA; TIC
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MDPI and ACS Style

James, T.; Collins, S.; Marczylo, T. Identification of Novel Simulants for Toxic Industrial Chemicals and Chemical Warfare Agents for Human Decontamination Studies: A Systematic Review and Categorisation of Physicochemical Characteristics. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8681. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18168681

AMA Style

James T, Collins S, Marczylo T. Identification of Novel Simulants for Toxic Industrial Chemicals and Chemical Warfare Agents for Human Decontamination Studies: A Systematic Review and Categorisation of Physicochemical Characteristics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(16):8681. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18168681

Chicago/Turabian Style

James, Thomas, Samuel Collins, and Tim Marczylo. 2021. "Identification of Novel Simulants for Toxic Industrial Chemicals and Chemical Warfare Agents for Human Decontamination Studies: A Systematic Review and Categorisation of Physicochemical Characteristics" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 16: 8681. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18168681

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