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Article

Effects of Exergames and Protein Supplementation on Body Composition and Musculoskeletal Function of Prefrail Community-Dwelling Older Women: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

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Postgraduate Program in Physical Education, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 81531-900, PR, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Food and Nutrition, Nutrition Department, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 81531-900, PR, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine Department, Endocrinology and Metabology Service (SEMPR), Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 80030-110, PR, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Physical Education, Prevention and Rehabilitation in Physiotherapy Department, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 81531-900, PR, Brazil
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18179324
Received: 8 June 2021 / Revised: 29 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Therapy in Geriatrics)
This study aimed to investigate the effects of exergames and protein supplementation on the body composition and musculoskeletal function of pre-frail older women. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted with 90 pre-frail older women (71.2 ± 4.5 years old) divided into five groups: control (CG); exergames training (ETG); protein supplementation (PSG); exergames combined with protein supplementation (ETPSG); exergames combined with isoenergetic supplementation (ETISG). The primary outcomes were pre-frailty status, body composition (appendicular muscle mass (ASM); appendicular muscle mass index (ASMI)) assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and gastrocnemius muscle architecture via ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were protein intake, plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, plantar and dorsiflexion isokinetic peak torque, and handgrip strength (HS). Data were analyzed using an ANOVA mixed model test and Bonferroni post hoc test (p < 0.05). The ETG showed a reduction of ASM (16.7 ± 3.4 vs. 16.1 ± 3.3 kg; Δ = −0.5; p = 0.02; d = 0.26) and ASMI (6.8 ± 0.9 vs. 6.5 ± 0.9 kg; Δ = −0.2; p = 0.03; d = 0.35), without changing ASM in other groups. The average protein intake in the supplemented groups (PSG and ETPSG) was 1.1 ± 0.2 g/kg/day. The dorsiflexion peak torque increased 11.4% in ETPSG (16.3 ± 2.5 vs. 18.4 ± 4.2 Nm; p = 0.021; d = −0.58). The HS increased by 13.7% in ETG (20.1 ± 7.2 vs. 23.3 ± 6.2 kg, Δ = 3.2 ± 4.9, p = 0.004, d = −0.48). The fatigue/exhaustion reduced by 100% in ETG, 75% in PSG, and 100% in ETPSG. Physical training with exergames associated with protein supplementation reversed pre-frailty status, improved the ankle dorsiflexors torque, and ameliorated fatigue/exhaustion in pre-frail older women. View Full-Text
Keywords: frail older; body composition; musculoskeletal system; virtual reality; nutritional supplementation; fatigue frail older; body composition; musculoskeletal system; virtual reality; nutritional supplementation; fatigue
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MDPI and ACS Style

Biesek, S.; Vojciechowski, A.S.; Filho, J.M.; Menezes Ferreira, A.C.R.d.; Borba, V.Z.C.; Rabito, E.I.; Gomes, A.R.S. Effects of Exergames and Protein Supplementation on Body Composition and Musculoskeletal Function of Prefrail Community-Dwelling Older Women: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9324. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18179324

AMA Style

Biesek S, Vojciechowski AS, Filho JM, Menezes Ferreira ACRd, Borba VZC, Rabito EI, Gomes ARS. Effects of Exergames and Protein Supplementation on Body Composition and Musculoskeletal Function of Prefrail Community-Dwelling Older Women: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):9324. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18179324

Chicago/Turabian Style

Biesek, Simone, Audrin S. Vojciechowski, Jarbas M. Filho, Ana C.R.d. Menezes Ferreira, Victória Z.C. Borba, Estela I. Rabito, and Anna R.S. Gomes. 2021. "Effects of Exergames and Protein Supplementation on Body Composition and Musculoskeletal Function of Prefrail Community-Dwelling Older Women: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 9324. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18179324

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