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Review

Marine Waste—Sources, Fate, Risks, Challenges and Research Needs

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Institute of Building Engineering, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland
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Institute of Landscape Architecture, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-357 Wrocław, Poland
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Institute of Spatial Management, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-357 Wrocław, Poland
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Faculty of Marine Engineering, Maritime University of Szczecin, 71-650 Szczecin, Poland
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Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020433
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 3 January 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 7 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Environmental Chemistry and Technology)
The article presents a comprehensive and cross-cutting review of key marine waste issues, taking into account: sources, fate, risks, transport pathways, threats, legislation, current challenges, and knowledge gaps. The growing amount of both human-created waste in seas and oceans and waste reaching marine ecosystems from land is one of today’s challenges for the global economy and the European Union. It is predicted that if no decisive steps are taken to limit the amount of this type of waste, there may be more plastic waste than fish in the oceans after 2050. The influence of microplastics and nanoplastics on living organisms remains undiagnosed. Within the international and EU law, solutions are being developed to properly manage waste on board ships and to reduce the impact of processes related to the recycling of the vessels on the environment. Currently, over 80% of ships are dismantled in the countries of South Asia, in conditions that threaten the environment and the safety of workers. After World War 2, large quantities of chemical weapons were deposited in the seas. Steel containers with dangerous substances residing in the sea for over 70 years have begun leaking, thus polluting water. For many years, radioactive waste had also been dumped into marine ecosystems, although since 1993 there has been a total ban on such disposal of radionuclides. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on marine waste generation has also been presented as a significant factor influencing marine waste generation and management. View Full-Text
Keywords: microplastics; nanoplastics; marine transport; ship recycling; radioactive waste; sustainable waste management; chemical weapon; SARS-CoV-2; MARPOL; marine ecosystems microplastics; nanoplastics; marine transport; ship recycling; radioactive waste; sustainable waste management; chemical weapon; SARS-CoV-2; MARPOL; marine ecosystems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dąbrowska, J.; Sobota, M.; Świąder, M.; Borowski, P.; Moryl, A.; Stodolak, R.; Kucharczak, E.; Zięba, Z.; Kazak, J.K. Marine Waste—Sources, Fate, Risks, Challenges and Research Needs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020433

AMA Style

Dąbrowska J, Sobota M, Świąder M, Borowski P, Moryl A, Stodolak R, Kucharczak E, Zięba Z, Kazak JK. Marine Waste—Sources, Fate, Risks, Challenges and Research Needs. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020433

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dąbrowska, Jolanta, Marcin Sobota, Małgorzata Świąder, Paweł Borowski, Andrzej Moryl, Radosław Stodolak, Ewa Kucharczak, Zofia Zięba, and Jan K. Kazak 2021. "Marine Waste—Sources, Fate, Risks, Challenges and Research Needs" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 2: 433. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020433

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