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Review

Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Combined with High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

School of Sports Science, Beijing Sport University, Beijing 100084, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Michal Wilk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10740; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010740
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 4 October 2021 / Accepted: 6 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
The low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet has recently been subject to attention on account of its reported influences on body composition and physical performance. However, the combined effect of LCHF with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to explore the effect of the LCHF diet combined with HIIT on human body composition (i.e., body weight (BM), body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), body fat percentage (BFP), fat-free mass (FFM)) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Online libraries (PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, CNKI, Wan Fang) were used to search initial studies until July 2021, from which 10 out of 2440 studies were included. WMD served as the effect size with a confidence interval value of 95%. The results of meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in BM (WMD = −5.299; 95% CI: −7.223, −3.376, p = 0.000), BMI (WMD = −1.150; 95% CI: −2.225, −0.075, p = 0.036), BFP (WMD = −2.787; 95% CI: −4.738, −0.835, p = 0.005) and a significant increase in VO2max (WMD = 3.311; 95% CI: 1.705, 4.918, p = 0.000), while FM (WMD = −2.221; 95% CI: −4.582, 0.139, p = 0.065) and FFM (WMD = 0.487; 95% CI: −3.512, 4.469, p = 0.814) remained unchanged. In conclusion, the LCHF diet combined with HIIT can reduce weight and fat effectively. This combination is sufficient to prevent muscle mass loss during LCHF, and further enhance VO2max. Further research might be required to clarify the effect of other types of exercise on body composition and physical performance during LCHF. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-carbohydrate high-fat diet; high-intensity interval training; body composition; maximal oxygen uptake; weight loss; meta-analysis low-carbohydrate high-fat diet; high-intensity interval training; body composition; maximal oxygen uptake; weight loss; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, J.; Wang, Z.; Lei, B.; Li, J.; Wang, R. Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Combined with High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10740. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010740

AMA Style

Hu J, Wang Z, Lei B, Li J, Wang R. Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Combined with High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10740. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010740

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Jing, Zhen Wang, Bingkai Lei, Junping Li, and Ruiyuan Wang. 2021. "Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Combined with High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10740. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010740

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