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Article

Effects of 16 Weeks of Taekwondo Training on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Circulating Neurotransmitters, and Subjective Well-Being of Obese Postmenopausal Women

by 1, 2,3,*,† and 4,*,†
1
Department of Taekwondo, College of Arts and Physical Education, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea
2
Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
3
Department of Taekwondo, Youngsan University, Yangsan-si 50510, Korea
4
Department of Sports Science, College of Health Science, Sun Moon University, 70 Sunmoon-ro 221 beon-gil, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si 31460, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Anna Polak, Bogdan Bacik and Agnieszka Nawrat-Szoltysik
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10789; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010789
Received: 25 August 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
We investigated the effects of Taekwondo training on the body composition, serum lipid profiles, plasma neurotransmitter levels, cerebral blood flow velocities, and subjective well-being of 24 obese postmenopausal women. The women were randomly assigned into the experimental (n = 12) and control (n = 12) groups. The experimental group underwent Taekwondo training five times per week for 16 weeks, while the control group did not. All participants underwent evaluation for the following parameters before and after the intervention: body composition; serum lipid profiles; plasma serotonin and dopamine levels; cerebral blood flow velocities; positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) scores; satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) scores. After the intervention, it was observed that the weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and PANAS-NA (negative affect in the PANAS questionnaire) scores were significantly decreased (p < 0.05)—while the plasma serotonin levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05)—in the experimental group. Conversely, there were no significant changes in the cerebral blood flow velocities (p > 0.05). Taekwondo training can be effective in not only reducing obesity, but also in increasing the circulating neurotransmitters and enhancing the subjective well-being of obese postmenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise training; body composition; mental health; cerebral blood flow; well-being exercise training; body composition; mental health; cerebral blood flow; well-being
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, Y.-K.; Cho, S.-Y.; Roh, H.-T. Effects of 16 Weeks of Taekwondo Training on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Circulating Neurotransmitters, and Subjective Well-Being of Obese Postmenopausal Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010789

AMA Style

Lee Y-K, Cho S-Y, Roh H-T. Effects of 16 Weeks of Taekwondo Training on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Circulating Neurotransmitters, and Subjective Well-Being of Obese Postmenopausal Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010789

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Yong-Kuk, Su-Youn Cho, and Hee-Tae Roh. 2021. "Effects of 16 Weeks of Taekwondo Training on the Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, Circulating Neurotransmitters, and Subjective Well-Being of Obese Postmenopausal Women" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010789

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