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Review

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Sedentary Time and Behaviour in Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Applied Sports, Technology, Exercise and Medicine (A-STEM) Research Centre, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
2
School of Healthcare Sciences, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 0AB, UK
3
Biomechanics and Bioengineering Research Centre Versus Arthritis, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 0AB, UK
4
Institute of Biological Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3FL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Joint last authorship.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111286
Received: 19 August 2021 / Revised: 20 September 2021 / Accepted: 27 September 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 on Exercise and Health)
The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the change in sedentary time during the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on health outcomes in the general population. One thousand six hundred and one articles published after 2019 were retrieved from five databases, of which 64 and 40 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Studies were grouped according to population: children (<18 years), adults (18–64 years) and older adults (>65 years). Average sedentary time was calculated, with sub-analyses performed by country, behaviour type and health outcomes. Children were most affected, increasing their sedentary time by 159.5 ± 142.6 min day−1, followed by adults (+126.9 ± 42.2 min day−1) and older adults (+46.9 ± 22.0 min day−1). There were no sex differences in any age group. Screen time was the only consistently measured behaviour and accounted for 46.8% and 57.2% of total sedentary time in children and adults, respectively. Increases in sedentary time were negatively correlated with global mental health, depression, anxiety and quality of life, irrespective of age. Whilst lockdown negatively affected all age groups, children were more negatively affected than adults or older adults, highlighting this population as a key intervention target. As lockdowns ease worldwide, strategies should be employed to reduce time spent sedentary. Trial registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020208909). View Full-Text
Keywords: mental health; gender; screen time; older adults; country; lockdown mental health; gender; screen time; older adults; country; lockdown
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MDPI and ACS Style

Runacres, A.; Mackintosh, K.A.; Knight, R.L.; Sheeran, L.; Thatcher, R.; Shelley, J.; McNarry, M.A. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Sedentary Time and Behaviour in Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11286. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111286

AMA Style

Runacres A, Mackintosh KA, Knight RL, Sheeran L, Thatcher R, Shelley J, McNarry MA. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Sedentary Time and Behaviour in Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11286. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111286

Chicago/Turabian Style

Runacres, Adam, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Rachel L. Knight, Liba Sheeran, Rhys Thatcher, James Shelley, and Melitta A. McNarry. 2021. "Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Sedentary Time and Behaviour in Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11286. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111286

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