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Article

Physical Activity, Mental Health and Wellbeing during the First COVID-19 Containment in New Zealand: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
School of Sport, Exercise and Nutrition, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
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School of Health Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
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Department of Tourism, Sport, and Society, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
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School of Sport, Health and Community, University of Winchester, Hampshire SO22 4NR, UK
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School of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pantelis T. Nikolaidis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12036; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182212036
Received: 22 September 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 11 November 2021 / Published: 16 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 on Exercise and Health)
Strategies implemented worldwide to contain COVID-19 outbreaks varied in severity across different countries, and established a new normal for work and school life (i.e., from home) for many people, reducing opportunities for physical activity. Positive relationships of physical activity with both mental and physical health are well recognised, and therefore the aim was to ascertain how New Zealand’s lockdown restrictions impacted physical activity, mental health and wellbeing. Participants (n = 4007; mean ± SD: age 46.5 ± 14.7 years, 72% female, 80.7% New Zealand European) completed (10–26 April 2020) an online amalgamated survey (Qualtrics): International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-9; World Health Organisation-Five Well-Being Index; Stages of Change Scale. Positive dose–response relationships between physical activity levels and wellbeing scores were demonstrated for estimates that were unadjusted (moderate activity OR 3.79, CI 2.88–4.92; high activity OR 8.04, CI 6.07–10.7) and adjusted (confounding variables: age, gender, socioeconomic status, time sitting and co-morbidities) (moderate activity 1.57, CI 1.11–2.52; high activity 2.85, CI 1.97–4.14). The study results support previous research demonstrating beneficial effects of regular physical activity on mental health and wellbeing. Governments may use these results to promote meeting physical activity guidelines in order to protect mental health and wellbeing during the ongoing COVID-19 restrictions and future pandemics. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; pandemic; exercise; depression; anxiety; wellness; physical distancing; lifestyle behaviour change coronavirus; pandemic; exercise; depression; anxiety; wellness; physical distancing; lifestyle behaviour change
MDPI and ACS Style

O’Brien, W.J.; Badenhorst, C.E.; Draper, N.; Basu, A.; Elliot, C.A.; Hamlin, M.J.; Batten, J.; Lambrick, D.; Faulkner, J. Physical Activity, Mental Health and Wellbeing during the First COVID-19 Containment in New Zealand: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12036. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182212036

AMA Style

O’Brien WJ, Badenhorst CE, Draper N, Basu A, Elliot CA, Hamlin MJ, Batten J, Lambrick D, Faulkner J. Physical Activity, Mental Health and Wellbeing during the First COVID-19 Containment in New Zealand: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22):12036. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182212036

Chicago/Turabian Style

O’Brien, Wendy J., Claire E. Badenhorst, Nick Draper, Arindam Basu, Catherine A. Elliot, Michael J. Hamlin, John Batten, Danielle Lambrick, and James Faulkner. 2021. "Physical Activity, Mental Health and Wellbeing during the First COVID-19 Containment in New Zealand: A Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 22: 12036. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182212036

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