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Open AccessArticle

Young Swimmers’ Middle-Distance Performance Variation within a Training Season

1
Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
2
Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
3
School of Physical Education & Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17233 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1010; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031010
Received: 22 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training and Performance in Youth Sports)
The current study aimed to longitudinally evaluate anthropometric, physiological, and biomechanical variables related to middle-distance performance during a 45-week swimming training season. Thirty-four swimmers (age: 12.07 ± 1.14 years) performed a maximum of 400 m front crawl at the beginning (T1) and finish of the first macrocycle (T2, 15 weeks) and the finish of the second (T3, 18 weeks) and third macrocycles (T4, 12 weeks). Time-related variables, stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL), and stroke index (SI) were recorded during the test, and blood lactate ([La]) and glucose ([Glu]) concentrations were measured post-exercise. The time of the 400 m effort decreased after each macrocycle (T2 vs. T1, 7.8 ± 5.6%; T3 vs. T2, 3.7 ± 3.1%; T4 vs. T3, 3.8 ± 3.4%; p < 0.01). Four hundred meter speed changes between T1 and T2 were positively related to variations in [La], [Glu], SL, and SI (r = 0.36–0.60, p < 0.05). Changes between T2 and T3 were related to SI only (r = 0.5, p < 0.05), and modifications between T3 and T4 were associated with SL and SI variations (r = 0.34 and 0.65, p < 0.05). These results indicate that a well-structured year plan including three macrocycles leads to a significant age-group swimming performance improvement, mostly connected with an increase in technical proficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: macrocycle; swimming; lactate; glucose; technique macrocycle; swimming; lactate; glucose; technique
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, S.; Carvalho, D.D.; Cardoso, R.; Rios, M.; Soares, S.; Toubekis, A.; Fernandes, R.J. Young Swimmers’ Middle-Distance Performance Variation within a Training Season. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1010. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031010

AMA Style

Ferreira S, Carvalho DD, Cardoso R, Rios M, Soares S, Toubekis A, Fernandes RJ. Young Swimmers’ Middle-Distance Performance Variation within a Training Season. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):1010. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferreira, Sara; Carvalho, Diogo D.; Cardoso, Ricardo; Rios, Manoel; Soares, Susana; Toubekis, Argyris; Fernandes, Ricardo J. 2021. "Young Swimmers’ Middle-Distance Performance Variation within a Training Season" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 3: 1010. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031010

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