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Article

Sex-Related Differences in the Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Gallstone Disease

1
Department of Clinical, Internal, Anaesthesiological and Cardiovascular Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Academic Editor: Michaël Laurent
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1958; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041958
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 15 February 2021 / Published: 18 February 2021
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and gallstone disease (GD) share common risk factors. Several epidemiological studies reported that subjects with Mets are more likely to have GD than those without and that cholecystectomy (CHO) may increase the risk of MetS. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between MetS and GD in a large cohort of patients with metabolic risk factors in Italy. The study was performed in 620 consecutive outpatients referring to the University outpatients’ clinic for the management of cardiovascular risk factors. MetS were diagnosed according to the ATPIII Expert Panel modified criteria. GD was defined as gallstones documented by abdominal ultrasound (US) or previous cholecystectomy. The prevalence of GD was significantly higher in women than in men (22.3% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.003). Both prevalence of GD (17.1% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.015) and CHO (9.0% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in males with MetS as compared to those without. By contrast, the prevalence of GD and of CHO was similar in women with and without MetS. After correction for confounders, MetS was an independent predictor of both GD (odds ratio (OR) 1.943, p = 0.048) and CHO (OR 5.075, p = 0.011) in men, but not in women. In conclusion, in this study, including western subjects with cardiometabolic risk factors, the association between GD, prior CHO and MetS were found in men, but not in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; gallstone disease; cholecystectomy; risk factor; epidemiology; cholecystectomy metabolic syndrome; gallstone disease; cholecystectomy; risk factor; epidemiology; cholecystectomy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baratta, F.; Pastori, D.; Cocomello, N.; Colantoni, A.; Ferro, D.; Angelico, F.; Del Ben, M. Sex-Related Differences in the Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Gallstone Disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1958. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041958

AMA Style

Baratta F, Pastori D, Cocomello N, Colantoni A, Ferro D, Angelico F, Del Ben M. Sex-Related Differences in the Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Gallstone Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1958. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041958

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baratta, Francesco, Daniele Pastori, Nicholas Cocomello, Alessandra Colantoni, Domenico Ferro, Francesco Angelico, and Maria Del Ben. 2021. "Sex-Related Differences in the Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Gallstone Disease" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1958. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041958

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