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Article

Maternal Food and Beverage Consumption Behaviors and Discrepant Phthalate Exposure by Race

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
2
Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL 62702, USA
5
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804, USA
6
Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Charleston, SC 29412, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present Address: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042190
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
Background: Differential exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including phthalate diesters, may contribute to persistent racial/ethnic disparities in women’s reproductive health outcomes. We sought to characterize sources of gestational exposure to these agents that may differ according to maternal race. Methods: We enrolled pregnant Black (n = 198), including African American, and White (n = 197) women during the second trimester, and measured eight phthalate monoester metabolites in urine. We assessed confounder-adjusted associations between multiple food and beverage consumption habits, summarized using a principal component analysis, as predictors of maternal urinary phthalate metabolite levels, stratified by race. Results: Whites reported significantly greater unprocessed food consumption (42.5% vs. 32.0%; p < 0.001) and storage of food in clear unbreakable plastic containers (66.5% vs. 49.3%; p < 0.001) than Blacks, while Blacks consumed more canned fruits and vegetables (23.5% vs. 12.2%; p < 0.001) than Whites. Using plastics for food storage, microwaving in plastic containers, and using hard plastic water bottles was associated with urinary phthalate concentrations, especially DEHP metabolites (e.g., mean difference = 5.13%; 95% CI: 3.05, 7.25). These associations were driven primarily by Black pregnant women. Conclusions: Targeted interventions to reduce maternal exposure to phthalates need to be designed with specific attention to differences in food and beverage consumption behaviors among Black and White women. View Full-Text
Keywords: female; phthalic acids/urine; pregnancy; questionnaires; racial groups female; phthalic acids/urine; pregnancy; questionnaires; racial groups
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sterrett, M.E.; Bloom, M.S.; Jamro, E.L.; Wenzel, A.G.; Wineland, R.J.; Unal, E.R.; Brock, J.; Kucklick, J.; Garcia, K.; Newman, R.B. Maternal Food and Beverage Consumption Behaviors and Discrepant Phthalate Exposure by Race. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2190. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042190

AMA Style

Sterrett ME, Bloom MS, Jamro EL, Wenzel AG, Wineland RJ, Unal ER, Brock J, Kucklick J, Garcia K, Newman RB. Maternal Food and Beverage Consumption Behaviors and Discrepant Phthalate Exposure by Race. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):2190. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042190

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sterrett, Mary E., Michael S. Bloom, Erica L. Jamro, Abby G. Wenzel, Rebecca J. Wineland, Elizabeth R. Unal, John Brock, John Kucklick, Kelly Garcia, and Roger B. Newman 2021. "Maternal Food and Beverage Consumption Behaviors and Discrepant Phthalate Exposure by Race" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 2190. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042190

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