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The Psychosocial and Somatic Effects of Relocation from Remote Canadian First Nation Communities to Urban Centres on Indigenous Peoples with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

1
School of Social Work, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada
2
School of Social Work, Lakehead University, Orillia, ON L3V 0B9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3838; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073838
Received: 14 March 2021 / Revised: 2 April 2021 / Accepted: 3 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
Chronic kidney disease, also referred to as end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a prevalent and chronic condition for which treatment is necessary as a means of survival once affected individuals reach the fifth and final stage of the disease. Dialysis is a form of maintenance treatment that aids with kidney functioning once a normal kidney is damaged. There are two main types of dialysis: hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Each form of treatment is discussed between the patient and nephrologist and is largely dependent upon the following factors: medical condition, ability to administer treatment, supports, geographical location, access to necessary equipment/supplies, personal wishes, etc. For Indigenous Peoples who reside on remote Canadian First Nation communities, relocation is often recommended due to geographical location and limited access to both health care professionals and necessary equipment/supplies (i.e., quality of water, access to electricity/plumbing, etc.). Consequently, the objective of this paper is to determine the psychosocial and somatic effects for Indigenous Peoples with ESRD if they have to relocate from remote First Nation communities to an urban centre. A review of the literature suggests that relocation to urban centres has negative implications that are worth noting: cultural isolation, alienation from family and friends, somatic issues, psychosocial issues, loss of independence and role adjustment. As a result of relocation, it is evident that the impact is profound in terms of an individuals’ mental, emotional, physical and spiritual well-being. Ensuring that adequate social support and education are available to patients and families would aid in alleviating stressors associated with managing chronic kidney disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; renal failure; end-stage renal disease; dialysis; indigenous; Northern; Canadian; rural; remote; urban; relocation chronic kidney disease; renal failure; end-stage renal disease; dialysis; indigenous; Northern; Canadian; rural; remote; urban; relocation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Genereux, D.; Fan, L.; Brownlee, K. The Psychosocial and Somatic Effects of Relocation from Remote Canadian First Nation Communities to Urban Centres on Indigenous Peoples with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3838. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073838

AMA Style

Genereux D, Fan L, Brownlee K. The Psychosocial and Somatic Effects of Relocation from Remote Canadian First Nation Communities to Urban Centres on Indigenous Peoples with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3838. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073838

Chicago/Turabian Style

Genereux, Denise, Lida Fan, and Keith Brownlee. 2021. "The Psychosocial and Somatic Effects of Relocation from Remote Canadian First Nation Communities to Urban Centres on Indigenous Peoples with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3838. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073838

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