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Article

Thallium Contamination of Drinking Water: Health Implications in a Residential Cohort Study in Tuscany (Italy)

1
Unit of Epidemiology, Regional Health Agency of Tuscany, 50124 Firenze, Italy
2
Department of Occupational Toxicology and Industrial Hygiene, Public Health Laboratory, 53100 Siena, Italy
3
Pediatric Division, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Pediatrics, University Hospital, 56126 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Prevention, Health Agency of North-West Tuscany, 56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panagiotis Karanis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4058; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084058
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 April 2021 / Published: 12 April 2021
In 2014–2015, concentrations of thallium above the recommended reference value (EPA: 2 µg/L) were measured in some parts of the drinking water distribution system in the municipality of Pietrasanta (Tuscany, Italy). An extensive campaign of water samples and human biomonitoring surveys were implemented to quantify the exposure of population. A residential cohort epidemiological study was carried out on the population of the municipality of Pietrasanta, aimed at comparing the health status of residents in the areas affected by thallium contamination with residents living in the rest of the municipality. Cohort included people residing in the municipality of Pietrasanta from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2015. Residence addresses were georeferenced and each subject living in one of the three contaminated areas were defined as exposed. Mortality, hospital discharge data and adverse pregnancy outcomes were taken from administrative health databases. Cox proportional hazard models and logistic models were used to test the association between thallium exposure and health outcome. This study did not show any excess of risk in terms of mortality and hospitalization in the population residing in the areas served by thallium-contaminated aqueduct branches, compared to the rest of the not contaminated area. Increased risks for low birth weight (OR = 1.43 95% CI 0.91–2.25) and pre-term birth (OR = 1.40 95% CI 0.82–2.37) were observed. In view of the paucity of epidemiological studies on thallium, this study is an important contribution to the state of knowledge of the health effects of chronic exposures to low concentrations of thallium. View Full-Text
Keywords: contaminated sites; drinking water; mines sites; mortality; residential cohort study; thallium; water safety plan contaminated sites; drinking water; mines sites; mortality; residential cohort study; thallium; water safety plan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nuvolone, D.; Petri, D.; Aprea, M.C.; Bertelloni, S.; Voller, F.; Aragona, I. Thallium Contamination of Drinking Water: Health Implications in a Residential Cohort Study in Tuscany (Italy). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4058. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084058

AMA Style

Nuvolone D, Petri D, Aprea MC, Bertelloni S, Voller F, Aragona I. Thallium Contamination of Drinking Water: Health Implications in a Residential Cohort Study in Tuscany (Italy). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4058. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084058

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nuvolone, Daniela, Davide Petri, Maria C. Aprea, Silvano Bertelloni, Fabio Voller, and Ida Aragona. 2021. "Thallium Contamination of Drinking Water: Health Implications in a Residential Cohort Study in Tuscany (Italy)" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4058. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084058

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