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Article

Importance of Geospatial Heterogeneity in Chronic Disease Burden for Policy Planning in an Urban Setting Using a Case Study of Singapore

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore 117549, Singapore
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Academic Editor: Antonio Palazón-Bru
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4406; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094406
Received: 21 March 2021 / Revised: 14 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 21 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictive Models That Can Impact Public Health)
Chronic disease burdens continue to rise in highly dense urban environments where clustering of type II diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or any combination of these three conditions is occurring. Many individuals suffering from these conditions will require longer-term care and access to clinics which specialize in managing their illness. With Singapore as a case study, we utilized census data in an agent-modeling approach at an individual level to estimate prevalence in 2020 and found high-risk clusters with >14,000 type II diabetes mellitus cases and 2000–2500 estimated stroke cases. For comorbidities, 10% of those with type II diabetes mellitus had a past acute myocardial infarction episode, while 6% had a past stroke. The western region of Singapore had the highest number of high-risk individuals at 173,000 with at least one chronic condition, followed by the east at 169,000 and the north with the least at 137,000. Such estimates can assist in healthcare resource planning, which requires these spatial distributions for evidence-based policymaking and to investigate why such heterogeneities exist. The methodologies presented can be utilized within any urban setting where census data exists. View Full-Text
Keywords: statistical modeling; chronic disease; spatial epidemiology; urbanization; environmental health statistical modeling; chronic disease; spatial epidemiology; urbanization; environmental health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, K.W.; Koo, J.R.; Lim, J.T.; Cook, A.R.; Dickens, B.L. Importance of Geospatial Heterogeneity in Chronic Disease Burden for Policy Planning in an Urban Setting Using a Case Study of Singapore. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4406. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094406

AMA Style

Tan KW, Koo JR, Lim JT, Cook AR, Dickens BL. Importance of Geospatial Heterogeneity in Chronic Disease Burden for Policy Planning in an Urban Setting Using a Case Study of Singapore. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4406. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094406

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tan, Ken W., Joel R. Koo, Jue T. Lim, Alex R. Cook, and Borame L. Dickens 2021. "Importance of Geospatial Heterogeneity in Chronic Disease Burden for Policy Planning in an Urban Setting Using a Case Study of Singapore" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4406. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094406

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