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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 10 (May-2 2022) – 570 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Limited information is available regarding chemical water quality at the tap in Guatemala City, preventing data-driven decision making. To address this need, households in Guatemala City were recruited as participatory scientists to collect tap water samples at their residence. Samples were analyzed for metals and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The results showed a high prevalence of arsenic above the Guatemalan health limit, representing a potential health risk. Other contaminants such as lead and PFAS may come from onsite plumbing and water storage. The participatory approach engaged members of the studied communities as participants in the scientific process and allowed for rapid data collection to help inform individuals, water utilities, and public health authorities on ways to reduce drinking water exposures. View this paper
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Article
Clinical Training during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Experiences of Nursing Students and Implications for Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106352 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 868
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused difficulties in the organization of clinical classes for nursing students. It is therefore important to explore students’ experiences related to participation in clinical classes during the pandemic and to draw conclusions that will allow for the introduction of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused difficulties in the organization of clinical classes for nursing students. It is therefore important to explore students’ experiences related to participation in clinical classes during the pandemic and to draw conclusions that will allow for the introduction of innovations enabling the development of the required professional competencies as part of training during current and future pandemic restrictions. In this study, we aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students related to clinical education during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify practical implications for this education in the future. A qualitative study was performed based on individual interviews among Polish nursing students (n = 20). The study is reported using the COREQ checklist. Content analysis was applied, and five main categories were identified, including ‘the key role of clinical mentor’, ‘theory-practice gap’, ‘ambivalent emotions and ethical challenges’, ‘to be part of the team’, and ‘strengthened professional identity’. The results of our research indicate that higher education institutions should implement clear strategies to support students, both in terms of psychological support and compensation of professional skills, the development of which might be limited during the pandemic. Modern technologies, including medical simulations, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, and telemedicine should be used in the practical teaching of nursing students to educate them on how to cope with difficult, new situations, build decision-making skills, and solve problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers and Challenges in Nursing and Midwifery Education)
Article
Interplay of Environmental Regulation and Local Protectionism in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6351; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106351 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Environmental regulation (ER) and local protectionism (LP) are important policy tools for Chinese local governments to improve the environment and promote growth, respectively, but we know little about their interplay in dealing with pollution-intensive industries and enterprises. Using spatial correlation analysis and spatial [...] Read more.
Environmental regulation (ER) and local protectionism (LP) are important policy tools for Chinese local governments to improve the environment and promote growth, respectively, but we know little about their interplay in dealing with pollution-intensive industries and enterprises. Using spatial correlation analysis and spatial panel simultaneous equations models, we investigated the spatial characteristics and interactions of the ER and LP in China’s 285 prefectural cities. We found that the high-ER-intensity areas were spreading from the eastern to the central and western regions, and the patterns of LP transited from high in the north and low in the south to high in the west and low in the east. There was a negative correlation spatially between ER and LP. LP could inhibit the increase in ER intensity, while the continuously increasing ER intensity could restrict LP through the competitive behavior from the “race to the bottom” to the “race to the top” among local governments. The effect of ER restricting LP was significant from 2008 to 2013 and prominent in the east, which was dominated by “race to the top” competition, while LP had a greater inhibitory effect on ER in the central and western regions, which preferred to obtain tax revenues from pollution-intensive industries. The results imply that removing the roots of local protectionism, improving the environmental governance system, and formulating differentiated regional environmental regulatory measures will help local governments balance economic growth and environmental protection. Full article
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Article
Environmental Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Experience of Bogotá, 2020
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106350 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 582
Abstract
During the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several environmental factors have influenced activities and protection policy measures in cities. This has had a major effect on climate change and global environmental catastrophe. In many countries, the strategy of closing various activities such as [...] Read more.
During the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several environmental factors have influenced activities and protection policy measures in cities. This has had a major effect on climate change and global environmental catastrophe. In many countries, the strategy of closing various activities such as tourism and industrial production stopped normal life, transportation, etc. This closure has a positive impact on the environment. However, the massive use of masks and personal protection could significantly increase pollution worldwide. The impact on the environment needs to be calculated to have information for public health actions. In this study, we present a first overview of the potential impacts of COVID-19 on some environmental matrices in Bogotá, Colombia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Environment: Impacts of a Global Pandemic)
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Article
Leachate Pretreatment before Pipe Transportation: Reduction of Leachate Clogging Potential and Upgrading of Landfill Gas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6349; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106349 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Leachate and landfill gas are the main contaminants produced by modern sanitary landfills. The leachate easily leads to clogging in the leachate transportation pipe, and the landfill gas can be used as renewable energy after the removal of CO2. The study [...] Read more.
Leachate and landfill gas are the main contaminants produced by modern sanitary landfills. The leachate easily leads to clogging in the leachate transportation pipe, and the landfill gas can be used as renewable energy after the removal of CO2. The study aims to investigate the removal of the major scale forming ion of Ca2+ in leachate using raw landfill gas before pipe transportation. The research demonstrated that, under the given experimental conditions, the removal rate of Ca2+ in the leachate was positively correlated with the pH value of the leachate, and negatively correlated with the intake flow rate of the landfill gas; the highest removal rate of Ca2+ was achieved when the intake flow rate and volume were 0.05 L/min and 2.0 L, respectively, and the highest removal rate of Ca2+ from the leachate was about 90%. The maximum removal rate of CO2 from landfill gas could reach 95%, and the CO2 content of the post-reaction gas was as low as 1.74% (volume percentage). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the precipitate was spherical and mainly contained inorganic substances such as CaCO3, MgCO3, Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, and SiO2. The study showed that, before the leachate was piped, the Ca2+ could be removed using the raw landfill gas, thereby reducing the potential for the formation of precipitation clogging in the pipeline. This study also provides new ideas for upgrading landfill gas to achieve a renewable-energy utilization plan, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by reducing CO2 emissions from landfills. Full article
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Article
The Role of Physical Activity Status in the Relationship between Obesity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) in Urban South African Teachers: The SABPA Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106348 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Globally, the prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity are on the rise, which may increase carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. This study assessed the association between physical activity (PA), obesity, and CIMT. A cross-sectional study design was used, [...] Read more.
Globally, the prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity are on the rise, which may increase carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. This study assessed the association between physical activity (PA), obesity, and CIMT. A cross-sectional study design was used, including a sub-sample (n = 216) of teachers who participated in the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SAPBA) study. Measurements included the following: physical activity status (measured with ActiHeart devices over 7 consecutive days), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), CIMT (measured by SonoSite Micromax ultrasound), blood pressure (BP), fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), and cholesterol and glucose levels. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. One-third of the teachers were physically inactive (33%) and had low-grade inflammation CRP ≥ 3 mg/L (41%). Males were more sedentary and had higher BP and CIMT (p < 0.05). Independent of age and sex, WC or central obesity was 2.63 times more likely (p = 0.02) to contribute to atherosclerosis, especially in females (OR: 4.23, p = 0.04). PA levels were insignificantly and negatively (β −0.034; 0.888; 0.240) related to subclinical atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular disease risk profiles and limited PA status may have curbed the beneficial impact of PA on the obesity and atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Editorial
Brain Tumor and Augmented Reality: New Technologies for the Future
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106347 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
In recent years, huge progress has been made in the management of brain tumors, due to the availability of imaging devices, which provide fundamental anatomical and pathological information not only for diagnostic purposes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Tumors, New Technologies and Augmented Reality)
Article
First Report of an Asymptomatic Leishmania (Viannia) shawi Infection Using a Nasal Swab in Amazon, Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6346; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106346 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The state of Pará has recorded seven Leishmania species that cause tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Leishmania species induce distinct immunological responses from the host and exhibit resistance to Glucantime, the first-line drug treatment for TL in Brazil. Objective: Identify the etiology of TL in [...] Read more.
The state of Pará has recorded seven Leishmania species that cause tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Leishmania species induce distinct immunological responses from the host and exhibit resistance to Glucantime, the first-line drug treatment for TL in Brazil. Objective: Identify the etiology of TL in an Amazonian city in the state of Pará. Material and methods: Eleven patients with TL were recruited and nasal swabs, lesion swabs, and skin fragments samples were collected. In the control group (n = 6), only the nasal swabs were collected. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of the gene region hsp70-234 was performed using the extracted DNA from the samples, from which nine patients with TL and five in the control group were positive. Products were sequenced, mounted in CAP3 software, aligned using MAFFT v.7.221, edited in Geneious software v.8.1.7, and compared and aligned with sequences available in GenBank using the BLAST tool. Results: For patients with TL, six molecular diagnosis at the species level (L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n = 5/9), L. (Viannia) shawi (n = 1/9)) and three at the genus level (Leishmania sp. (n = 3/9)) were obtained. In the control group, four individuals were infected with Leishmania sp. (n = 4/5) and L. (V.) shawi (n = 1/5). Conclusion: This is the first report of L. (V.) shawi infection in the mucosal secretion of a healthy person in Brazil. Moreover, genetic variants were identified in the haplotypes of L. (V.) braziliensis in the gene sequence hsp70-234. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Article
The Prospective Co-Parenting Relationship Scale (PCRS) for Sexual Minority and Heterosexual People: Preliminary Validation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6345; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106345 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 560
Abstract
The coparenting relationship begins with a process of planning and negotiation about having children. Available psychological instruments have not been adapted to sexual minority people, which compromises their ecological validity. This mixed method study aimed to adapt and validate a prospective version of [...] Read more.
The coparenting relationship begins with a process of planning and negotiation about having children. Available psychological instruments have not been adapted to sexual minority people, which compromises their ecological validity. This mixed method study aimed to adapt and validate a prospective version of the Co-Parenting Relationship Scale in a Portuguese sample of sexual minority and heterosexual adults who did not have children and who were in a dyadic relationship. In study 1, cognitive interviews were used to gather participants’ reflections about the original items and the role played by the family of origin and anticipated stigma in coparenting (n = 6). In study 2, using a sample of individuals from 18 to 45 years old, two Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were conducted separately for sexual minority (n = 167) and heterosexual persons (n = 198), and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted for heterosexual persons (n = 176). Results showed underscored the importance of families of origin independent of sexual orientation. Different factorial structures for sexual minority and heterosexual persons were observed. Among sexual minority persons, the role of stigma was also highlighted. Implications for practice and research are discussed. Full article
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Article
Non-Normality as a Predictor of Participation in Bullying: Valuation in Victims and Aggressors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6344; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106344 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Bullying is related to several variables, including diversity and variables that place the victim outside of normality. However, it is not easy to find a single meaning of normality. The present study has two main objectives: to find out whether victims are evaluated [...] Read more.
Bullying is related to several variables, including diversity and variables that place the victim outside of normality. However, it is not easy to find a single meaning of normality. The present study has two main objectives: to find out whether victims are evaluated as non-normal and to find out whether aggressors are evaluated as non-normal. A cross-sectional, correlational, and quantitative study was designed, focusing on a representative sample of secondary school students from the Community of Madrid. The sample consisted of 2076 participants and was constructed using a stratified, proportional, and random sampling technique. To gather this information, a questionnaire was constructed. It includes a first section where sociodemographic and normality information is collected, and a second section made up of the Defensor del pueblo-UNICEF Bullying Questionnaire. The reliability and consistency of the questionnaire are acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.91). For the comparison of means between groups, a Student’s t-test was applied, and the correlation between variables was calculated by applying the bivariate correlation test. Results show that victims are evaluated as non-normal while aggressors are perceived as normal. This implies that the risk of being involved in bullying situations as a victim can be predicted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Interpersonal Violence)
Article
The Health Cost of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Does Health-Promoting Leadership Matter?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106343 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Previous research has mainly focused on the positive effects of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study questions the positive impact of OCB, arguing that there is a health cost of OCB. Based on the conservation of resource theory, this study expects that OCB [...] Read more.
Previous research has mainly focused on the positive effects of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study questions the positive impact of OCB, arguing that there is a health cost of OCB. Based on the conservation of resource theory, this study expects that OCB triggers citizenship fatigue, which, in turn, negatively affects employees’ health and results in health complaints. This study also seeks to find a moderator (health-promoting leadership) that could mitigate the negative effects of citizenship fatigue (caused by engaging in OCB) on health complaints. To test our predictions, we collected three-wave data from 207 leader–subordinate dyads. The results of regression analyses show that OCB is positively related to employees’ health complaints, which is mediated by citizenship fatigue. Health-promoting leadership weakens the positive relationship between citizenship fatigue and health complaints, thus negatively moderating the indirect relationship between OCB and health complaints via citizenship fatigue. This study provides theoretical and practical implications for future research directions. Full article
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Article
Needle-Stick and Sharp Injuries among Hospital Healthcare Workers in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6342; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106342 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 672
Abstract
Needle-stick or sharp injuries (NSIs) are critical occupational hazards for healthcare workers. Exposure to blood and body fluids through NSIs increases the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens among them. The objectives of this study were to estimate the annual incidence of NSIs [...] Read more.
Needle-stick or sharp injuries (NSIs) are critical occupational hazards for healthcare workers. Exposure to blood and body fluids through NSIs increases the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens among them. The objectives of this study were to estimate the annual incidence of NSIs and investigate the associated factors of NSIs among the healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between October and November 2021. A total of 361 healthcare workers participated in the survey from all over Saudi Arabia. The one-year incidence of at least one event of NSIs among the healthcare workers is estimated at 22.2% (95% CI: 18.0, 26.8). More than half of the injury events (53.8%) were not reported to the authority by the healthcare workers. Incidence of NSIs was highest among the physicians (36%) and was followed by nurses (34.8%), dentists (29.2%), and medical technologists (21.1%). The odds of NSIs was higher among the healthcare workers aged 26–30 years compared to the 20–25 years age group (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.04, 6.03), as well as among the workers who directly dealt with needles or other sharp objects while working compared to those who did not (OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 2.69, 12.97). The high incidence and low rate of reporting of NSIs highlights the need of education and awareness raising programs targeting healthcare providers with higher risk of injury. Full article
Article
Access to Services from Persons with Disabilities in Afghanistan: Is Community Based Rehabilitation Making a Difference?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6341; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106341 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), ratified in 2006, states that the achievement of equal rights, empowerment, and social inclusion of people with disabilities requires comprehensive rehabilitation services involving educational, social, economic, and medical interventions, all dimensions [...] Read more.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), ratified in 2006, states that the achievement of equal rights, empowerment, and social inclusion of people with disabilities requires comprehensive rehabilitation services involving educational, social, economic, and medical interventions, all dimensions of the World Health Organization Community based rehabilitation (CBR) matrix. CBR programs aim at achieving those goals. In the present study, we investigated whether a large scale CBR program is improving access to multiple services (namely physical therapy, assistive technology, education, employment, advocacy, and community awareness) and providing satisfactions (by measuring the reduction in unmet needs) of Afghans with disabilities. We enrolled in the study 1861 newly recruited CBR participants with disabilities from 169 villages between July 2012 and December 2013, and 1132 controls screened with disabilities randomly selected with a two-stage process within 6000 households from 100 villages in the same provinces as the CBR but outside its catchment area. Using propensity score matching (PSM) and difference in difference analysis, we estimated the differences in accessing services. There were statistically significant differences between participants and controls on the access of available services between the baseline and endline. Using PSM we also found that needs were more often met among CBR participants compared to the controls. Our study indicates that a CBR program may be an effective way to provide services for persons with disabilities even in a conflict context such as Afghanistan. It contributes to addressing the longstanding question whether CBR can actually improve the rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. Full article
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Article
Neuroendocrine Response and State Anxiety Due to Psychosocial Stress Decrease after a Training with Subject’s Own (but Not Another) Virtual Body: An RCT Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106340 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Previous research involving healthy participants has reported that seeing a moving virtual body from the first person perspective induces the illusion of ownership and agency over that virtual body. When a person is sitting and the virtual body runs, it is possible to [...] Read more.
Previous research involving healthy participants has reported that seeing a moving virtual body from the first person perspective induces the illusion of ownership and agency over that virtual body. When a person is sitting and the virtual body runs, it is possible to measure physiological, behavioral and cognitive reactions that are comparable to those that occur during actual movement. Capitalizing on this evidence, we hypothesized that virtual training could also induce neuroendocrine effects that prompt a decreased psychosocial stress response, as occurs after physical training. While sitting, 26 healthy young adults watched a virtual avatar running for 30 min from the first person perspective (experimental group), while another 26 participants watched the virtual body from the third person perspective (control group). We found a decreased salivary alpha-amylase concentration (a biomarker for the stress response) after the virtual training among the experimental group only, as well as a decreased subjective feeling of state anxiety (but no difference in heart rate). We argue that the virtual illusion of a moving body from the first person perspective can initiate a cascade of events, from the perception of the visual illusion to physiological activation that triggers other biological effects, such as the neuroendocrine stress response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion Using New Technology)
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Article
Impact of Gingivitis on Circulating Neutrophil Reactivity and Gingival Crevicular Fluid Inflammatory Proteins
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106339 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Gingivitis is an extremely common oral inflammatory condition and can be induced in humans using an acute 21-day experimental gingivitis model. Neutrophils are known to be highly prevalent in the gingival crevice during gingival inflammation; however, the effect of gingivitis and the associated [...] Read more.
Gingivitis is an extremely common oral inflammatory condition and can be induced in humans using an acute 21-day experimental gingivitis model. Neutrophils are known to be highly prevalent in the gingival crevice during gingival inflammation; however, the effect of gingivitis and the associated biofilm on peripheral blood neutrophils (PBN) is not well characterised. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of inflammation induced by experimental gingivitis and its resolution upon the function of PBN. Fifteen systemically healthy volunteers undertook a split-mouth 21-day experimental gingivitis study followed by a resolution phase of 14 days. PBN function, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, directional chemotactic accuracy and expression of host mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), were measured at baseline (day 0), on day 21 and on day 35. NET formation and ROS production were significantly elevated at day 21. Chemotactic speed was also elevated in response to bacterial peptide fMLP at day 21. At day 35, ROS production in response to an Fcgamma stimulant, opsonised Staphylococcus aureus, remained elevated. The data presented suggest a lasting biological impact of the experimental gingivitis on PBN function even after clinical symptoms have abated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases)
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Article
The Association between Ultra-Processed Foods, Quality of Life and Insomnia among Adolescent Girls in Northeastern Iran
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106338 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Ultra-processed foods have been associated with increased risk of chronic disease, poor overall health and psychological outcomes. This study explored the association of ultra-processed foods with quality of life in adolescent girls from northeastern Iran. In an interdisciplinary cross-sectional study, n = 733 [...] Read more.
Ultra-processed foods have been associated with increased risk of chronic disease, poor overall health and psychological outcomes. This study explored the association of ultra-processed foods with quality of life in adolescent girls from northeastern Iran. In an interdisciplinary cross-sectional study, n = 733 adolescent girls were recruited by random cluster sampling. Assessments were completed for demographics, physical activity, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, psychological health and dietary intake. The participants were categorized into quartiles of ultra-processed food intake, and multivariable logistic regression was used in several models to investigate the association between ultra-processed food intake and psychological health. The mean age of the participants was 14 years. There were no significant differences in participant demographics for the quartiles of ultra-processed food intake including weight, waist–hip ratio, waist circumference, depression, insomnia and cardiometabolic markers related to cardiovascular disease risk. Adjusted logistic regression showed participants in the highest category of ultra-processed food consumption had an increased likelihood of reduced quality of life (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.13–3.11), with a greater chance for insomnia (OR: 4.04, 95% CI: 1.83–8.94) across all models. However, no significant associations were observed between consumption of ultra-processed foods and daytime sleepiness. We highlight the association between ultra-processed food consumption and poor quality of life and insomnia amongst adolescent girls. Large longitudinal integrated public health studies in different ethnicities are needed to confirm these associations and evaluate their possible impact for optimizing health promotion programs. Full article
Article
Citizen Science Mosquito Surveillance by Ad Hoc Observation Using the iNaturalist Platform
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6337; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106337 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Citizen science mosquito surveillance has been growing in recent years due to both increasing concern about mosquito-borne disease and the increasing popularity of citizen science projects globally. Health authorities are recognising the potential importance of citizen science to expanding or enhancing traditional surveillance [...] Read more.
Citizen science mosquito surveillance has been growing in recent years due to both increasing concern about mosquito-borne disease and the increasing popularity of citizen science projects globally. Health authorities are recognising the potential importance of citizen science to expanding or enhancing traditional surveillance programs. Different programs have shown success in engaging communities to monitor species of medical importance through low-cost methods. The Mozzie Monitors project was established on iNaturalist—an open citizen science platform that allows participants to upload photos (i.e., observers) and assist identification (i.e., identifiers). This article describes the likelihood of citizen scientists submitting photos of mosquitoes, assesses user submission behaviour, and evaluates public health utility from these citizen science-derived data. From October 2018 to July 2021, the Mozzie Monitors project on iNaturalist received 2118 observations of 57 different species of mosquitoes across Australia. The number of observers in the system increased over time with more than 500 observers and 180 identifiers being active in the project since its establishment. Data showed species bias with large-bodied and colourful mosquitoes being over-represented. Analyses also indicate regional differentiation of mosquito fauna per state, seasonality of activity, and ecological information about mosquitoes. The iNaturalist citizen science platform also allows connectedness, facilitated communication and collaboration between overall users and expert entomologists, of value to medical entomology and mosquito management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health and Epidemiology)
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Review
Effectiveness of Warm-Up Intervention Programs to Prevent Sports Injuries among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106336 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Sports participation by children and adolescents often results in injuries. Therefore, injury prevention warm-up programs are imperative for youth sports safety. The purpose of this paper was to assess the effectiveness of Warm-up Intervention Programs (WIP) on upper and lower limb sports injuries [...] Read more.
Sports participation by children and adolescents often results in injuries. Therefore, injury prevention warm-up programs are imperative for youth sports safety. The purpose of this paper was to assess the effectiveness of Warm-up Intervention Programs (WIP) on upper and lower limb sports injuries through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches for relevant studies were performed on PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane databases. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a WIP and included outcomes for injury sustained during sports participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Furlan’s criteria. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.3 software was used to process and analyze the outcome indicators of the literature. Across fifteen studies, the pooled point estimated injury rate ratio (IRR) was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.54–0.75; 36% reduction) while accounting for hours of risk exposure. Publication bias assessment suggested a 6% reduction in the estimate (IRR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.60–0.82), and the prediction interval intimated that any study estimate could still fall between 0.34 and 1.19. Subgroup analyses identified one significant moderator that existed in the subgroup of compliance (p < 0.01) and might be the source of heterogeneity. Compared with the control group, WIPs significantly reduced the injury rate ratio of upper and lower limb sports injuries in children and adolescents. Full article
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Article
Adult Exposures to Toxic Trace Elements as Measured in Nails along the Interoceanic Highway in the Peruvian Amazon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106335 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Deforestation, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), and the rapid development related to highway expansion cause opportunities for toxic trace element exposure in the Amazon region of Madre de Dios (MDD), Peru, one of the most biologically diverse places in the world. The [...] Read more.
Deforestation, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), and the rapid development related to highway expansion cause opportunities for toxic trace element exposure in the Amazon region of Madre de Dios (MDD), Peru, one of the most biologically diverse places in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury among adults in Madre de Dios. In total, 418 adult (18+ years) participants in the Investigacion de Migracion, Ambiente, y Salud (IMAS) (Migration, Environment, and Health Study) participated in this study. Consent, survey data, and biospecimens were collected between August and November 2014. Nail elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. Differences by selected individual and household characteristics and local land uses were tested using one-way ANOVAs and linear mixed models. Adults in ASGM-affected areas had higher nail arsenic and nail cadmium than their non-ASGM counterparts. Higher household fish consumption was positively associated with nail mercury and nail lead. The results indicate that adult exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury is heterogeneous across Madre de Dios, and the exposures related to ASGM communities and fish consumption suggest that exposures from artisanal and small-scale mining are environmentally widespread. Further investigation is warranted to ascertain potential health impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health in Latin America and the Caribbean)
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Article
A Feasible Methodological Approach to Estimate the Burden of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results from the EPI-ASD Study in the Province of Lecce (Southern Italy)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6334; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106334 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have rapidly increased globally. However, the lack of comprehensive epidemiological surveys and surveillance systems, able to provide official data at a national or European level is one of the main issues in the monitoring of this condition. [...] Read more.
Diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have rapidly increased globally. However, the lack of comprehensive epidemiological surveys and surveillance systems, able to provide official data at a national or European level is one of the main issues in the monitoring of this condition. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents aged 3–18 years old living in the province of Lecce (Southern Italy) through official data provided by the Local Health Authority of Lecce (ASL/LE) up to 31 October 2020, and compare it with school-based data concerning the number of students needing support for ASD. Based on data provided by the ASL/LE, in 2020 there were 509 cases of ASD among children and adolescents aged 3–18 years old, corresponding to a prevalence of 0.46%. A total of 408 (80.2%) were boys and 101 (19.8%) were girls. In relation to their age, 155 ASD cases (0.90%) were diagnosed in the 3–5 age group, while 222 (0.55%) in the 6–11 age group and 132 (0.25%) in the 12–18 age group. Prevalence of ASD assessed by school-based dataset was underestimated in the 3–5 age group, while the 6–11 and 12–18 age groups were consistent with the official data provided by the ASL/LE. Full article
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Article
‘Bringing the Covert into the Open’: A Case Study on Technology Appropriation and Continuous Improvement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6333; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106333 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 381
Abstract
As end-users, employees appropriate technologies. Technology appropriation is generally conceived as a covert phenomenon. In particular, alternative ways and new purposes for which employees deploy technologies tend to remain hidden. Therefore, the potential of technologies as a source of organizational improvements may remain [...] Read more.
As end-users, employees appropriate technologies. Technology appropriation is generally conceived as a covert phenomenon. In particular, alternative ways and new purposes for which employees deploy technologies tend to remain hidden. Therefore, the potential of technologies as a source of organizational improvements may remain undisclosed. Continuous improvement (CI) programs, in contrast, are explicitly oriented at disclosing organizational improvements. In essence, CI programs encourage employees to openly discuss how to improve their work practices. Such continuous movements towards novel, often better, ways of working may be perfectly suited to bring the covert nature of technology appropriation into the open. Based on a case study on a personal digital assistant (PDA) in a Belgian nursing home with such a CI program in place, we document and analyze to what extent and why functionalities of the PDA were discussed and further developed. We distinguish between the functionalities that, upon implementation, intended to improve particular work practices, and those that surfaced after the technology had been introduced. To conclude, we point at employees’ perceived usefulness of their work practices and their willingness to improve these, rather than only the technology itself, to further the debate on technology appropriation. Full article
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Review
Responses Presented by Adult Patients with COVID-19, Based on the Formulated Nursing Diagnoses: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106332 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 479
Abstract
(1) Background: this review aims to identify the human responses exhibited by adult patients with COVID-19, by listing the corresponding nursing diagnoses. Nursing diagnosis it’s a clinical analysis of human responses to a person, family, or community. Therefore, it is possible to state [...] Read more.
(1) Background: this review aims to identify the human responses exhibited by adult patients with COVID-19, by listing the corresponding nursing diagnoses. Nursing diagnosis it’s a clinical analysis of human responses to a person, family, or community. Therefore, it is possible to state that nursing diagnoses represent human responses. (2) Methods: a scoping review was conducted following recommendations provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) and the research was carried out between December 2020 and 15 January, 2021, via CINAHL Complete, Complementary Index, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Academic Search Complete, Science Citation Index, Directory of Open Access Journals, Scopus, Social Sciences Citation Index, Business Source Complete, eBook Index (by B-on), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (by Cochrane Library). (3) Results: with respect to studies using the NANDA-I taxonomy, the findings have shown that “impaired gas exchange” was the most highlighted nursing diagnosis. ICNP taxonomy, the relevant nursing diagnosis is “cough present”. (4) Conclusions: concurrently, as suggested by the human responses documented in this review, throughout the pandemic, the requirements for adequate care provision have been constantly updated, to improve the quality of life of those patients, as much as possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing System in the Time of COVID-19)
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Study Protocol
The Effect of Physical Exercise on Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Fitness among Preschool Children: Study Protocol for a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106331 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Background: Evidence shows that physical exercise promotes preschoolers’ fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and physical fitness (PF). However, studies that assess the effectiveness of different types of physical exercise interventions to improve FMSs and PF in preschool children remain scarce. To explore and [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence shows that physical exercise promotes preschoolers’ fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and physical fitness (PF). However, studies that assess the effectiveness of different types of physical exercise interventions to improve FMSs and PF in preschool children remain scarce. To explore and compare the effectiveness of different physical exercise on FMSs and PF, interventions comprising ball games (BGs), rhythm activities (RAs), basic movements (BMs), and a combination of all related activities (multiple activities, MAs) will be conducted among preschoolers. Methods: A single-blind, five-arm, cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in kindergarten in Shanghai, China. In total, 300 healthy preschoolers, aged 4 to 5 years, will be randomized to four intervention groups (BG, RA, BM, or MA) and one control group (unorganized physical activities). Four intervention groups will receive three 30-min lessons weekly for 16 weeks. At the baseline, the end of the 16-week intervention, and the 6-month follow-up after the end of the intervention, the primary outcomes (FMSs and PF) and physical activity (PA), and sociodemographic and anthropometric data will be assessed. Discussion: This study will provide vital information regarding the effect of different physical exercise interventions on preschool children’s FMSs and PF, PA, and the potential interactions between these domains. The most effective intervention strategy can be generalized to kindergarten and other preschool educational institutions in practice to promote preschoolers’ development of FMSs and PF. Conclusions: This study protocol aims to provide a method to solve the problem of “how to arrange physical exercise and which kind of physical exercise program can promote FMS and PF better in preschool children”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
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Article
Shorter Incubation Period among COVID-19 Cases with the BA.1 Omicron Variant
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106330 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 853
Abstract
We aimed to elucidate the range of the incubation period in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in comparison with the Alpha variant. Contact tracing data from three Japanese public health centers (total residents, 1.06 million) collected following the guidelines of the [...] Read more.
We aimed to elucidate the range of the incubation period in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in comparison with the Alpha variant. Contact tracing data from three Japanese public health centers (total residents, 1.06 million) collected following the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Control Law were reviewed for 1589 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases diagnosed in January 2022. We identified 77 eligible symptomatic patients for whom the date and setting of transmission were known, in the absence of any other probable routes of transmission. The observed incubation period was 3.03 ± 1.35 days (mean ± SDM). In the log-normal distribution, 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values were 1.3 days (95% CI: 1.0–1.6), 2.8 days (2.5–3.1) and 5.8 days (4.8–7.5), significantly shorter than among the 51 patients with the Alpha variant diagnosed in April and May in 2021 (4.94 days ± 2.19, 2.1 days (1.5–2.7), 4.5 days (4.0–5.1) and 9.6 days (7.4–13.0), p < 0.001). As this incubation period, mainly of sublineage BA.1, is even shorter than that in the Delta variant, it is thought to partially explain the variant replacement occurring in late 2021 to early 2022 in many countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Public Healthcare Systems during COVID-19)
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Article
Digital Health Profile of South Korea: A Cross Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6329; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106329 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 356
Abstract
(1) Backgroud: For future national digital healthcare policy development, it is vital to collect baseline data on the infrastructure and services of medical institutions’ information and communication technology (ICT). To assess the state of medical ICT across the nation, we devised and administered [...] Read more.
(1) Backgroud: For future national digital healthcare policy development, it is vital to collect baseline data on the infrastructure and services of medical institutions’ information and communication technology (ICT). To assess the state of medical ICT across the nation, we devised and administered a comprehensive digital healthcare survey to medical institutions across the nation. (2) Methods: From 16 November through 11 December 2020, this study targeted 42 tertiary hospitals, 311 general hospitals, and 1431 hospital locations countrywide. (3) Results: Since 2015, most hospitals have implemented electronic medical record (EMR) systems (90.5 percent of hospitals, which is the smallest unit, and 100 percent of tertiary hospitals). The rate of implementation of personal health records (PHRs) varied significantly between 61.9 percent and 2.4 percent, depending on the size of the hospital. Hospitals have implemented around three to seven government-sponsored information/data transmission and receiving systems for statistical or investigative objectives. For secondary usage of medical data, more than half of tertiary hospitals have implemented a clinical data warehouse or shared data model. However, new service establishments utilizing modern medical technologies such as artificial intelligence or lifelogging were scarce and in the planning stages. (4) Conclusion: This study shows that the level of digitalization in Korean medical institutions is significant, despite the fact that the development and spending in ICT infrastructure and services provided by individual institutions imposes a significant cost. This illustrates that, in the face of a pandemic, strong government backing and policymaking are essential to activate ICT-based medical services and efficiently use medical data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic eHealth and mHealth: Challenges and Prospects)
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Article
A University and Community-Based Partnership: After-School Mentoring Activities to Support Positive Mental Health for Children Who Are Refugees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6328; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106328 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine mentors’ perceptions of a pilot service-learning program designed to provide activities to promote the self-esteem and positive development of elementary school-age children who were refugees. Activities were designed to promote self-esteem, self-confidence, social skills development, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine mentors’ perceptions of a pilot service-learning program designed to provide activities to promote the self-esteem and positive development of elementary school-age children who were refugees. Activities were designed to promote self-esteem, self-confidence, social skills development, and problem-solving. College students completed reflection journals to record their perceptions of mentoring and what the children were learning and experiencing. The results indicated that mentors believed the children were learning ideas to improve their self-esteem and social development. Mentors’ impressions were corroborated by reports about the program from staff who worked with the children daily. Involving parents in programming, may have extended the reach of program efforts. Some children may have benefited from evaluations to determine if counseling would benefit them, given the trauma history they and their family members were potentially facing. This was a pilot program implementation study, and a limitation is that data from youth and parents about mental health outcomes were lacking. In the future, assessing perceptions of children, involving their caregivers in programming, and then assessing their caregivers’ perceptions of the impact of the program on children’s self-esteem and social and emotional functioning will provide critical information about program success and information for program development. Full article
Article
Social Support and Family Functioning during Adolescence: A Two-Wave Cross-Lagged Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106327 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
The influence of social and family factors on adolescent mental health has been widely valued. Considering adolescents’ family systems in a broader social context facilitates a better understanding of their mental health, which also has special significance in the post-epidemic era. The purpose [...] Read more.
The influence of social and family factors on adolescent mental health has been widely valued. Considering adolescents’ family systems in a broader social context facilitates a better understanding of their mental health, which also has special significance in the post-epidemic era. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between social support and family functioning during adolescence. Students from two middle schools in Fujian province, China, were recruited as participants. Seven hundred and fifty-four participants completed the questionnaire twice in six-month intervals. We constructed a cross-lagged model by using IBM SPSS AMOS 26.0 to test the relationship between these two variables. Social support and family functioning predicted each other in the girls, but not for the boys’ sample. The results of this study suggested that the interaction between family and social factors and the possible gender differences should be considered when dealing with adolescents’ mental health problems. Full article
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Article
Self-Serving Dishonesty Partially Substitutes Fairness in Motivating Cooperation When People Are Treated Fairly
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6326; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106326 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Fairness is a key expectation in social interactions. Its violation leads to adverse reactions, including non-cooperation and dishonesty. The present study aimed to examine how (1) fair (unfair) treatment may drive cooperation (defection) and honesty (self-serving dishonesty), (2) dishonesty primes further moral disengagement [...] Read more.
Fairness is a key expectation in social interactions. Its violation leads to adverse reactions, including non-cooperation and dishonesty. The present study aimed to examine how (1) fair (unfair) treatment may drive cooperation (defection) and honesty (self-serving dishonesty), (2) dishonesty primes further moral disengagement and reduced cooperation, and (3) dishonesty weakens (substitutes) the effect of fairness on cooperation. The prisoner’s dilemma (Experiment 1 and 2) and die-rolling task (Experiment 2) were employed for capturing cooperation and dishonest behaviors, respectively. To manipulate perceived unfairness, participants were randomly assigned to play the prisoner’s dilemma game, where players either choose more cooperation (fair condition) or defection (unfair condition). Results of Experiment 1 (n = 102) suggested that participants perceive higher unfairness and behave less cooperatively when the other player primarily chooses defection. Results of Exp. 2 (n = 240) (a) confirmed Exp. 1 results, (b) showed that players in the unfair condition also show more self-serving dishonest behavior, and (c) that dishonest behavior weakens the effect of fairness on cooperation. Together, these results extended previous work by highlighting the self-serving lies when the opponent is fair trigger higher cooperation, presumably as a means to alleviate self-reflective moral emotions or restore justice. Full article
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Article
The Perceptions of Domestic Violence by a Family Member Who Uses Crack or Cocaine: A Secondary Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6325; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106325 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between crack/cocaine use and domestic violence perpetration from the perspective of substance users’ families. A secondary retrospective cross-sectional study, with 3162 family members of crack/cocaine users seeking treatment in the Recomeço Família Programme in São Paulo/Brazil was undertaken. [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between crack/cocaine use and domestic violence perpetration from the perspective of substance users’ families. A secondary retrospective cross-sectional study, with 3162 family members of crack/cocaine users seeking treatment in the Recomeço Família Programme in São Paulo/Brazil was undertaken. Family members of crack/cocaine users reported that their relatives were more involved in domestic violence such as stealing (money and objects) at home [Odds Ratio Adjusted ORA = 2.17 (CI 95% 1.87; 2.53)], the family gave money to the user to buy drugs [ORA = 1.27 (1.08; 1.48)], and having problems with the judiciary [ORA = 1.48 (CI 95% 1.28; 1.71)]. Relatives of snorted cocaine users reported that there was physical and interpersonal violence, such as fathers being assaulted [ORA = 2.50 (CI 95% 1.08; 5.82)], assaulted someone else [ORA = 1.86 (CI 95% 1.32; 2.60)], threats of violence fights, arguments when the family talk about problematic drug use [ORA = 1.50 (CI 95% 1.13; 1.96)] and threatened some family members [ORA = 1.52 (CI 95% 1.14; 2.04)]. In this sample, there was a connection between crack/cocaine use and the perpetuation of domestic violence, corroborating with important implications for public policies, substance use treatment and prevention of domestic violence interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction: A Public Health Global Pandemic)
Article
Improving Health Literacy: Analysis of the Relationship between Residents’ Usage of Information Channels and Health Literacy in Shanghai, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106324 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to examine the relationship between residents’ health literacy (HL) and their use of and trust in information channels. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional health survey utilizing a cluster sampling design was conducted in January 2022. The sample consisted of 1067 [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to examine the relationship between residents’ health literacy (HL) and their use of and trust in information channels. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional health survey utilizing a cluster sampling design was conducted in January 2022. The sample consisted of 1067 residents in Shanghai, China. Those who correctly answered over 80% of the questions were regarded as qualified. The differences in residents’ HL and the dimensions of knowledge HL, lifestyle HL, and skills HL were analyzed based on their use of and trust in traditional media, the internet, and offline activities. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the effects of the usage of these channels on all four types of HL. Results: A total of 27.65% of participants were qualified for HL. The use of traditional media (OR = 1.405, p < 0.05) and engagement in offline activities (OR = 1.951, p < 0.05) were significantly related to HL. Disbelief in traditional media was related to being qualified in knowledge HL (OR = 1.262; p < 0.05), whereas disbelief in offline activities had an adverse effect on knowledge HL and skills HL (OR = 0.700, 0.807; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Effort should be made to improve the efficiency of offline health education, and ensure the reliability and quality of health-related information from mass media and the internet to improve residents’ HL. Full article
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Review
Resistance Training before, during, and after COVID-19 Infection: What Have We Learned So Far?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6323; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19106323 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 638
Abstract
At the end of 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 started a pandemic, leading to millions of deaths and many important political and social changes. Even in the absence of contamination, the mobility reduction, social distancing and closing of exercise [...] Read more.
At the end of 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 started a pandemic, leading to millions of deaths and many important political and social changes. Even in the absence of contamination, the mobility reduction, social distancing and closing of exercise facilities negatively affected physical activity and conditioning, which is associated with muscle atrophy, loss of muscle strength, and reductions in functional capacity. In cases of infection, it has been shown that increased physical capacity is associated with decreased hospitalization and mortality risk. Although millions of people have died from COVID-19, most contaminated individuals survived the infection, but carried different sequelae, such as the severe loss of physical function and a reduced quality of life. Among different physical exercise models that might help to prevent and treat COVID-19-related conditions, resistance training (RT) might be particularly relevant. Among its benefits, RT can be adapted to be performed in many different situations, even with limited space and equipment, and is easily adapted to an individual’s characteristics and health status. The current narrative review aims to provide insights into how RT can be used in different scenarios to counteract the negative effects of COVID-19. By doing this, the authors expect to provide insights to help deal with the current pandemic and similar events the world may face in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training in Physical Fitness and Sports Performance)
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