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Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants

1
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
2
Former Director, International Program & Clinical Advisor, Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA), 75 Kneeland Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(7), 2537-2549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph9072537
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Pseudomonas species are opportunistic pathogens with implications in a wide range of diseases including cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. Because of their status as multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) bacteria Pseudomonas species represent a threat to public health. Prevalence, antibiogram and associated antibiotic resistant genes of Pseudomonas species isolated from freshwater and mixed liquor environments in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique was used to identify the isolates and screen for antibiotic resistant genes. The result shows occurrence of Pseudomonas spp. in freshwater and mixed liquor as follows: 71.42% and 37.5% (P. putida), 14.28% and 31.25% (P. flourescens), 7.14% and 6.25% (P. aeruginosa) and 7.14% and 25% for other Pseudomonas species respectively. Disk diffusion antibiogram of the Pseudomonas isolates from the two locations showed 100% resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, rifampicin and 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin with varied percentage resistances to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and ampicillin. The blaTEM antibiotic resistant gene was detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% P. aeruginosa and 40% in other Pseudomonas species. Similarly, Integrons conserved segment were detected in 12.5% of P. putida, 57.14% of P. fluorescens, 100% of P. aeruginosa and 40% of other Pseudomonas species. The presence of blaTEM gene and integrons conserved segment in some of the isolates is worrisome and suggest Pseudomonas species as important reservoirs of multidrug resistance genes in the Eastern Cape Province environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pseudomonas; commensal; multidrug resistant genes; integron; blaTEM Pseudomonas; commensal; multidrug resistant genes; integron; blaTEM
MDPI and ACS Style

Igbinosa, I.H.; Nwodo, U.U.; Sosa, A.; Tom, M.; Okoh, A.I. Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2537-2549. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph9072537

AMA Style

Igbinosa IH, Nwodo UU, Sosa A, Tom M, Okoh AI. Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(7):2537-2549. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph9072537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Igbinosa, Isoken H., Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anibal Sosa, Mvuyo Tom, and Anthony I. Okoh 2012. "Commensal Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 9, no. 7: 2537-2549. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph9072537

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