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Current Oncology is published by MDPI from Volume 28 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Multimed Inc..

Curr. Oncol., Volume 16, Issue 6 (December 2009) – 9 articles

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Case Report
Partial Cancerous Changes Eventually Developing into Superficial Spreading Cancer over 18 Months
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 57-60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.424 - 01 Dec 2009
Viewed by 108
Abstract
In this report, we describe a patient presenting with the superficial spreading type of early gastric cancer (egc) accompanied by cancerous ulcers. Disease progression and treatment outcome are discussed. After symptoms persisted for more than 1 year, the patient underwent total [...] Read more.
In this report, we describe a patient presenting with the superficial spreading type of early gastric cancer (egc) accompanied by cancerous ulcers. Disease progression and treatment outcome are discussed. After symptoms persisted for more than 1 year, the patient underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection. The patient was diagnosed with superficial spreading cancer (ssc), accompanied by an extensive iic lesions. The progression of this patient suggests that the co-occurrence of cancerous ulcers may contribute to egc development to some extent. As is known, egc often develops into advanced gastric cancer with time. However, in our case, we observed a process during which partial cancerous changes developed into ssc over 18 months. Superficial spreading cancer should be considered an egc variant, which may have the ability to spread superficially along the stomach wall without invading the muscularis propria. But we speculate that, if gene expression changes for some reason, the malignant ssc cells may acquire the ability to grow deeply into the stomach wall. Eventually, Borrmann type iv gastric cancer may develop. Full article
Article
Colorectal Cancer Association of Canada Consensus Meeting: Raising the Standards of Care for Early-Stage Rectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 50-56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.505 - 01 Dec 2009
Viewed by 88
Abstract
The purpose of the meeting reported here was to develop a set of national evidence-based standards for assessing and managing patients with potentially resectable rectal cancer. This report represents the consensus of the multidisciplinary group of Canadian rectal cancer experts attending that meeting. [...] Read more.
The purpose of the meeting reported here was to develop a set of national evidence-based standards for assessing and managing patients with potentially resectable rectal cancer. This report represents the consensus of the multidisciplinary group of Canadian rectal cancer experts attending that meeting. Full article
Article
Clinician–Patient Communication: Evidence-Based Recommendations to Guide Practice in Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 42-49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.432 - 01 Dec 2009
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 190
Abstract
Goals of Work: To develop recommendations for effective communication between cancer health care providers and patients based on a systematic review of methods of clinician–patient communication that may affect patient outcomes associated with distress at critical points in the course of cancer [...] Read more.
Goals of Work: To develop recommendations for effective communication between cancer health care providers and patients based on a systematic review of methods of clinician–patient communication that may affect patient outcomes associated with distress at critical points in the course of cancer care. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted, and evidence-based recommendations were formulated to guide clinician–patient communication in cancer care. A formal external review was conducted to validate the relevance of these recommendations. Main Results: Recommendations for communication in cancer care are presented, based on (1) guidelines from the Australian National Breast Cancer Centre and the Australian National Cancer Control Initiative, (2) an updated systematic review of the research evidence, and (3) a consensus by the Clinician–Patient Communications Working Panel of the Program in Evidence-Based Care of Cancer Care Ontario. The recommendations were sent to 110 Ontario practitioners for external review: 33 responded (30% response rate). Most of these respondents (87%) agreed with the draft recommendations and approved of their use as a practice guideline (90%). A condensed version of the recommendations, including 10 key points, was also created. Conclusions: There is evidence to support general clinician–patient communication approaches, although the preferences of cancer patients regarding such communication exhibit individual and cultural variability. Recommendations are provided, based on evidence, the consensus of an expert panel, and feedback from a survey of external practitioners. Evidence evaluating the role of decision aids and strategies to facilitate better communication is inconsistent, although such tools may be of value for some patients. Full article
Article
Cancer Diagnostic Assessment Programs: Standards for the Organization of Care in Ontario
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 29-41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.400 - 01 Dec 2009
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 102
Abstract
Background: Improving access to better, more efficient, and rapid cancer diagnosis is a necessary component of a high-quality cancer system. How diagnostic services ought to be organized, structured, and evaluated is less understood and studied. Our objective was to address this gap. [...] Read more.
Background: Improving access to better, more efficient, and rapid cancer diagnosis is a necessary component of a high-quality cancer system. How diagnostic services ought to be organized, structured, and evaluated is less understood and studied. Our objective was to address this gap. Methods: As a quality initiative of Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care, the Diagnostic Assessment Standards Panel, with representation from clinical oncology experts, institutional and clinical administrative leaders, health service researchers, and methodologists, conducted a systematic review and a targeted environmental scan of the unpublished literature. Standards were developed based on expert consensus opinion informed by the identified evidence. Through external review, clinicians and administrators across Ontario were given the opportunity to provide feedback. Results: The body of evidence consists of thirty-five published studies and fifteen unpublished guidance documents. The evidence and consensus opinion consistently favoured an organized, centralized system with multidisciplinary team membership as the optimal approach for the delivery of diagnostic cancer assessment services. Independent external stakeholders agreed (with higher mean values, maximum 5, indicating stronger agreement) that dap standards are needed (mean: 4.6), that standards should be formally approved (mean: 4.3), and importantly, that standards reflect an effective approach that will lead to quality improvements in the cancer system (mean: 4.5) and in patient care (mean: 4.3). Interpretation: Based on the best available evidence, standards for the organization of daps are offered. There is clear need to integrate formal and comprehensive evaluation strategies with the implementation of the standards to advance this field. Full article
Article
Impact of Radiation Avoidance on Survival and Neurocognitive Outcome in Infant Medulloblastoma
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 21-28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.435 - 01 Dec 2009
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 109
Abstract
Purpose: Concerns about radiotherapy-related neurocognitive sequelae in young children have led to deferral or avoidance of radiation in contemporary treatment for this fragile group of patients. We compared survival and neurocognitive outcome in two groups of infants with medulloblastoma who received adjuvant [...] Read more.
Purpose: Concerns about radiotherapy-related neurocognitive sequelae in young children have led to deferral or avoidance of radiation in contemporary treatment for this fragile group of patients. We compared survival and neurocognitive outcome in two groups of infants with medulloblastoma who received adjuvant conventional craniospinal irradiation (csi) or reduced or no radiotherapy during an era of change in the philosophy of infant medulloblastoma treatment. Patients and Methods: From 1985 to 2007, 29 patients 3 years of age or younger were diagnosed and treated with curative intent in our institution. Children treated before 1994 received adjuvant radiation with chemotherapy; subsequently, radiation was prescribed essentially for disease progression or relapse. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 24 months (range: 1–36 months); 15 patients (52%) presented with metastatic disease at diagnosis. As part of initial treatment, 8 children received adjuvant radiotherapy with chemotherapy, and 21 children received postoperative chemotherapy only. Five children treated with chemotherapy alone are in prolonged remission. The 5-year event-free and overall survivals were 35.9% ± 9.8% and 50.2% ± 9.6% respectively. Extent of resection, metastatic status, and desmoplastic histology were not found to be significant prognostic factors. On serial neurocognitive evaluations, patients treated with chemotherapy with or without reduced radiotherapy demonstrated improvement of intellectual function over time. Patients treated with conventional csi exhibited significantly lower intelligence quotient scores and academic performance, with the exception of receptive vocabulary. Conclusions: Avoidance of conventional csi in treatment of very young children with medulloblastoma appears to be associated with a preserved neurocognitive profile. Neurocognitive evaluation should be integrated into the primary objectives of future infant protocols. Full article
Article
Generalizability of Toxicity Data from Oncology Clinical Trials to Clinical Practice: Toxicity of Irinotecan-Based Regimens in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 13-20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.426 - 01 Dec 2009
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 95
Abstract
Background: The relevance of oncology trial results to clinical practice depends on whether the trial participants are similar to the actual population of patients receiving treatment for the malignancy and whether the patients are treated similarly in both circumstances. Chemotherapy treatments may [...] Read more.
Background: The relevance of oncology trial results to clinical practice depends on whether the trial participants are similar to the actual population of patients receiving treatment for the malignancy and whether the patients are treated similarly in both circumstances. Chemotherapy treatments may be more toxic in patients of advanced age and poor performance status—patients typically excluded from clinical trials. Methods: In a retrospective chart review that included all non-trial patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy from January 2004 to September 2006 at our institution, we quantified and subsequently compared the toxicity rates of the irinotecan regimens in clinical practice with published toxicity rates from corresponding phase iii clinical trials. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grades 3 and 4 diarrhea. Results: The study included 203 patients, and the irinotecan regimens considered included (1) folfiri [irinotecan, leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil (5fu)], (2) ifl (bevacizumab, irinotecan, 5fu, leucovorin), (3) xeliri (capecitabine, 3-weekly irinotecan), and (4) irinotecan monotherapy. The rates of grades 3 and 4 diarrhea for folfiri, ifl, xeliri, and irinotecan monotherapy in clinical practice were 10%, 15%, 17%, and 21% as compared with 10%, 23%, 20%, and 31% respectively in clinical trials. When only patients meeting trial performance status and age criteria were analyzed, the rates of grades 3 and 4 diarrhea by regimen were 11%, 20%, 19%, and 26% respectively. Conclusions: Overall, the toxicity rates for folfiri and irinotecan monotherapy in non-trial patients were not statistically different from the rates quoted in published clinical trials. Full article
Article
Relative Dose Intensity Delivered to Patients with Early Breast Cancer: Canadian Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 8-12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.311 - 01 Dec 2009
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 110
Abstract
Adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer improves disease-free and overall survival in pre- and postmenopausal women. The importance of maintaining relative dose intensity (rdi) is well-known; however, little information is available from routine clinical practice regarding how well dose intensity is [...] Read more.
Adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer improves disease-free and overall survival in pre- and postmenopausal women. The importance of maintaining relative dose intensity (rdi) is well-known; however, little information is available from routine clinical practice regarding how well dose intensity is maintained with modern chemotherapy regimens. In a retrospective review of patients undergoing chemotherapy for early breast cancer at a single institution in Canada from January 2006 to November 2007, a total of 263 patients received one of the following regimens: (1) ac-t [doxorubicin (Adriamycin: Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI, U.S.A.)–cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel (Taxol: Bristol–Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A.)]; (2) fec-100 (5-fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide); (3) fec-d (5-fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide, docetaxel). Overall, only 14.4% of patients had a rdi less than 85%. Dose delay or reduction (or both) occurred in 46%, 37%, and 20% of patients receiving fec-100, ac-t, and fec-d respectively. Optimal rdi was delivered to 96%, 95%, and 70.7% of patients for ac-t, fec-d and fec-100 regimens respectively. Patients over 65 years of age accounted for 14% of the total cohort and were more likely to receive a suboptimal rdi than were patients younger than 65 years of age (35% vs. 6.6%). Optimal chemotherapy rdi (>85%) for early breast cancer can be achieved at an academic cancer centre. This goal is less often accomplished in elderly patients, and thus a proactive approach is required for managing toxicity in that population. Full article
Communication
Bogarting that Joint Might Decrease Oral hpv among Cannabis Users
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 5-7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.429 - 01 Dec 2009
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 116
Abstract
Human papilloma virus (hpv) has many known strains, two of the most well studied perhaps being the high-risk types 16 and 18. These strains have attracted more interest because they are known to disrupt tumour-suppressor genes that control the cell cycle, [...] Read more.
Human papilloma virus (hpv) has many known strains, two of the most well studied perhaps being the high-risk types 16 and 18. These strains have attracted more interest because they are known to disrupt tumour-suppressor genes that control the cell cycle, rendering those genes less effective at keeping cell division in check. Within the last decade, an increase in oral hpv–linked cancers of the throat and tongue has been attributed to exposure and contraction of hpv through oral sex, most notably in younger people. An understudied and arguably equal contributor to oral hpv infection might be indirect contact with an infected person. Presented here is a brief but important perspective on the relationship between cannabis use and oral cancer. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers. Future research should therefore investigate the prevalence of oral hpv in cannabis smokers to better understand its epidemiology Full article
Communication
Predictors of Workplace Absenteeism in Cancer Care Workers
Curr. Oncol. 2009, 16(6), 2-4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3747/co.v16i6.427 - 01 Dec 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 96
Abstract
Workplace absenteeism occurs at an increased rate among employees in health care as compared with employees in other sectors [...] Full article
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