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Curr. Oncol., Volume 28, Issue 4 (August 2021) – 68 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This Atlantic Canada population-based cross-sectional study examines the association between cancer treatment modality and mental health (depression or anxiety) among men survivors of cancer (prostate or other forms) using scientifically validated questionnaires. Results show that 1 in 6 cancer survivors screened positive for depression and 1 in 11 screened positive for anxiety. The results we report here extend the literature, showing a silent epidemic of mental health illness among prostate cancer survivors, by revealing that prostate cancer surgery patients have more than 7 times the odds of depression compared to men who received surgery for their cancer (not prostate) when age, survivorship time, marital status, household income and multimorbidity were statistically controlled. Multidisciplinary teams for the survivorship care of prostate cancer patients are critical and much [...] Read more.
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Article
Efficacy of Different Interventions to Reduce Pre- or Perioperative Blood Transfusion Rate in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3214-3226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040279 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Background: The high proportion of blood transfusions before and during surgery carries unnecessary risk and results in poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Different pharmacological interventions (i.e., iron supplement or recombinant erythropoietin) to reduce blood transfusion rates have shown inconclusive results. Methods: This [...] Read more.
Background: The high proportion of blood transfusions before and during surgery carries unnecessary risk and results in poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Different pharmacological interventions (i.e., iron supplement or recombinant erythropoietin) to reduce blood transfusion rates have shown inconclusive results. Methods: This network meta-analysis (NMA) consisted of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of different pharmacologic interventions (i.e., iron supplementation or recombinant erythropoietin) to reduce the blood transfusion rate. NMA statistics were conducted using the frequentist model. Results: Seven RCTs (688 participants) were included in this study. The NMA demonstrated that the combination of high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin and oral iron supplements was associated with the least probability of receiving a blood transfusion [odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): 0.08 to 0.73] and best reduced the amount of blood transfused if blood transfusion was necessary (mean difference = −2.62 U, 95% CI: −3.55 to −1.70 U) when compared to the placebo/control group. None of the investigated interventions were associated with any significantly different dropout rate compared to the placebo/control group. Conclusions: The combination of high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin and oral iron supplements might be considered as a choice for reducing the rate of blood transfusion in patients with colorectal cancer. However, future large-scale RCT with long-term follow-up should be warranted to approve the long-term safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
A Cross-Sectional Survey Exploring the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Cancer Care of Adolescents and Young Adults
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3201-3213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040278 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 881
Abstract
We aimed to describe the negative and positive impacts of changes in cancer care delivery due to COVID-19 pandemic for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in Canada, as well as the correlates of negative impact and their perspectives on optimization of cancer care. [...] Read more.
We aimed to describe the negative and positive impacts of changes in cancer care delivery due to COVID-19 pandemic for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in Canada, as well as the correlates of negative impact and their perspectives on optimization of cancer care. We conducted an online, self-administered survey of AYAs with cancer living in Canada between January and February 2021. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a negative impact on cancer care. Of the 805 participants, 173 (21.5%) experienced a negative impact on their cancer care including delays in diagnostic tests (11.9%), cancer treatment (11.4%), and appointments (11.1%). A prior diagnosis of mental or chronic physical health condition, an annual income of <20,000 CAD, ongoing cancer treatment, and province of residence were independently associated with a negative cancer care impact (p-value < 0.05). The majority (n = 767, 95.2%) stated a positive impact of the changes to cancer care delivery, including the implementation of virtual healthcare visits (n = 601, 74.6%). Pandemic-related changes in cancer care delivery have unfavorably and favorably influenced AYAs with cancer. Interventions to support AYAs who are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of the pandemic, and the thoughtful integration of virtual care into cancer care delivery models is essential. Full article
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Article
What Matters in Cancer Survivorship Research? A Suite of Stakeholder-Relevant Outcomes
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3188-3200; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040277 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
The outcomes assessed in cancer survivorship research do not always match the outcomes that survivors and health system stakeholders identify as most important in the post-treatment follow-up period. This study sought to identify stakeholder-relevant outcomes pertinent to post-treatment follow-up care interventions. We conducted [...] Read more.
The outcomes assessed in cancer survivorship research do not always match the outcomes that survivors and health system stakeholders identify as most important in the post-treatment follow-up period. This study sought to identify stakeholder-relevant outcomes pertinent to post-treatment follow-up care interventions. We conducted a descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with stakeholders (survivors, family/friend caregivers, oncology providers, primary care providers, and cancer system decision-/policy-makers) across Canada. Data analysis involved coding, grouping, detailing, and comparing the data by using the techniques commonly employed in descriptive qualitative research. Forty-four participants took part in this study: 11 survivors, seven family/friend caregivers, 18 health care providers, and eight decision-makers. Thirteen stakeholder-relevant outcomes were identified across participants and categorized into five outcome domains: psychosocial, physical, economic, informational, and patterns and quality of care. In the psychosocial domain, one’s reintegration after cancer treatment was described by all stakeholder groups as one of the most important challenges faced by survivors and identified as a priority outcome to address in future research. The outcomes identified in this study provide a succinct suite of stakeholder-relevant outcomes, common across cancer types and populations, that should be used in future research on cancer survivorship care. Full article
Article
Characterizing the Exercise Behaviour, Preferences, Barriers, and Facilitators of Cancer Survivors in a Rural Canadian Community: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3172-3187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040276 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Barriers, facilitators, and motivators to exercise for cancer survivors living in urban settings are well described in the literature. However, there is a lack of comparable information for cancer survivors living in rural communities. We describe the exercise behaviours, barriers, facilitators, and motivators [...] Read more.
Barriers, facilitators, and motivators to exercise for cancer survivors living in urban settings are well described in the literature. However, there is a lack of comparable information for cancer survivors living in rural communities. We describe the exercise behaviours, barriers, facilitators, and motivators to exercise participation of cancer survivors living in a rural Canadian community. Adult cancer survivors with a primary address in a rural region of Ontario, Canada, who had visited a community hospital in the previous five years were mailed a cross-sectional survey assessing current exercise volume (minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic and resistance exercise), as well as exercise preferences, barriers, and facilitators. Seventy-two survivors (mean age 65 years) completed the survey (16% response rate). A majority of respondents were diagnosed with breast cancer (49%) in the last 5 years (61%). Aerobic- and resistance-training guidelines for cancer survivors were met by 38% and 10% of respondents, respectively. Physical side effects were the most common barrier to exercise during treatment (65%) and post-treatment (35%). Being unaware of available exercise programs, time for exercise, distance to exercise services, and cost were commonly reported barriers during and post-treatment (reported by 10–22%). Respondents reported needing information from a qualified exercise professional (46%), access to a gym (33%) and exercise equipment (26%), and social support (25%) to facilitate exercise participation. Consistent with urban-based cancer survivors, most rural survivors surveyed in this study were not meeting the physical-activity guidelines and reported numerous exercise barriers. These findings can serve as a resource for this and similar rural communities when developing community-based exercise-support services for cancer survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Palliative and Supportive Care)
Article
A Machine Learning Approach to Predict Stress Hormones and Inflammatory Markers Using Illness Perception and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3150-3171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040275 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Psychosocial factors have become central concepts in oncology research. However, their role in the prognosis of the disease is not yet well established. Studies on this subject report contradictory findings. We examine if illness perception and quality of life reports measured at baseline [...] Read more.
Psychosocial factors have become central concepts in oncology research. However, their role in the prognosis of the disease is not yet well established. Studies on this subject report contradictory findings. We examine if illness perception and quality of life reports measured at baseline could predict the stress hormones and inflammatory markers in breast cancer survivors, one year later. We use statistics and machine learning methods to analyze our data and find the best prediction model. Patients with stage I to III breast cancer (N = 70) were assessed twice, at baseline and one year later, and completed scales assessing quality of life and illness perception. Blood and urine samples were obtained to measure stress hormones (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and inflammatory markers (c-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and fibrinogen). Family quality of life is a strong predictor for ACTH. Women who perceive their illness as being more chronic at baseline have higher ESR and fibrinogen values one year later. The artificial intelligence (AI) data analysis yields the highest prediction score of 81.2% for the ACTH stress hormone, and 70% for the inflammatory marker ESR. A chronic timeline, illness control, health and family quality of life were important features associated with the best predictive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathways to Psychological Resilience in Breast Cancer Survivorship)
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Article
Prognostic Impact of YKL-40 Immunohistochemical Expression in Patients with Colorectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3139-3149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040274 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
This study aims to examine the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of the YKL-40 immunohistochemical expression of tumor and immune cells through human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. We performed immunohistochemistry for YKL-40 and investigated the clinicopathological and prognostic impact of the YKL-40 expression of [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of the YKL-40 immunohistochemical expression of tumor and immune cells through human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. We performed immunohistochemistry for YKL-40 and investigated the clinicopathological and prognostic impact of the YKL-40 expression of tumor (T-YKL-40) and immune cells (I-YKL-40) in CRC. We also evaluated the correlation between YKL-40 and PD-L1 expression and the immunoscore. YKL-40 was expressed in 22.6% and 64.2% of T-YKL-40 and I-YKL-40, respectively, out of the 265 CRC tissues. The I-YKL-40 expression significantly correlated with well and moderately differentiated tumors. The PD-L1 expression in immune cells significantly correlated with the I-YKL-40 expression, but not T-YKL-40 expression (p = 0.020 and p = 0.846, respectively). The I-YKL-40 expression significantly correlated with a worse overall survival rate but not recurrence-free survival (p = 0.047 and p = 0.080, respectively). However, there was no significant correlation between the T-YKL-40 expression and survival. In CRCs with a high immunoscore, patients with I-YKL-40 expression demonstrated worse overall and recurrence-free survival than those without I-YKL-40 expression. Our results demonstrated that I-YKL-40 expression significantly correlated with tumor differentiation and PD-L1 expression in immune cells. I-YKL-40 expression can be useful for the prognostic stratification of CRC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Review
Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy and Diabetes: A Scoping Review
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3124-3138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040273 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Although cancer and diabetes are common diseases, the relationship between diabetes, neuropathy and the risk of developing peripheral sensory neuropathy while or after receiving chemotherapy is uncertain. In this review, we highlight the effects of chemotherapy on the onset or progression of neuropathy [...] Read more.
Although cancer and diabetes are common diseases, the relationship between diabetes, neuropathy and the risk of developing peripheral sensory neuropathy while or after receiving chemotherapy is uncertain. In this review, we highlight the effects of chemotherapy on the onset or progression of neuropathy in diabetic patients. We searched the literature in Medline and Scopus, covering all entries until 31 January 2021. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were: (1) original article (2) full text published in English or Spanish; (3) neuropathy was specifically assessed (4) the authors separately analyzed the outcomes in diabetic patients. A total of 259 papers were retrieved. Finally, eight articles fulfilled the criteria, and four more articles were retrieved from the references of the selected articles. The analysis of the studies covered the information about neuropathy recorded in 768 cancer patients with diabetes and 5247 control cases (non-diabetic patients). The drugs investigated are chemotherapy drugs with high potential to induce neuropathy, such as platinum derivatives and taxanes, which are currently the mainstay of treatment of various cancers. The predisposing effect of co-morbid diabetes on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy depends on the type of symptoms and drug used, but manifest at any drug regimen dosage, although greater neuropathic signs are also observed at higher dosages in diabetic patients. The deleterious effects of chemotherapy on diabetic patients seem to last longer, since peripheral neuropathy persisted in a higher proportion of diabetic patients than non-diabetic patients for up to two years after treatment. Future studies investigating the risk of developing peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients with comorbid diabetes need to consider the duration of diabetes, cancer-induced neuropathic effects per se (prior chemotherapy administration), and the effects of previous cancer management strategies such as radiotherapy and surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term Effects of Systemic Therapies on Cancer Patients)
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Article
Use of Propensity Score Matching to Compare Short Outcomes from Transoral and External Surgical Approaches in Patients with Deep-Lobe Parotid Pleomorphic Adenomas
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3115-3123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040272 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 383
Abstract
To compare the outcomes of patients who had deep-lobe parotid gland pleomorphic adenomas (PAs) that extended into the parapharyngeal space after surgical treatment, using a transoral approach or an external approach. One hundred and twelve eligible patients, with deep-lobe parotid gland PAs, were [...] Read more.
To compare the outcomes of patients who had deep-lobe parotid gland pleomorphic adenomas (PAs) that extended into the parapharyngeal space after surgical treatment, using a transoral approach or an external approach. One hundred and twelve eligible patients, with deep-lobe parotid gland PAs, were enrolled in this retrospective study. The surgical outcomes were compared for patients who received a transoral approach and an external approach, using 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM). The outcome measures were recurrence rate, facial nerve deficit, Frey’s syndrome, and hospitalization time. The median follow-up time was 4.8 years. After PSM, the transoral approach and external approach groups had no statistically significant difference in recurrence (10.3% vs. 3.4%; p = 0.201). The transoral approach group had no facial nerve deficit, but 5 of 29 patients (17.2%) in the external approach group had transient facial nerve paralysis (p = 0.052). The external approach group had a longer hospitalization time than the transoral approach group (5 vs. 4 days, p = 0.0017). The use of a transoral surgical approach to treat patients with deep-lobe parotid gland PAs led to low recurrence, shorter hospitalization times, and good functional and cosmetic outcomes. Full article
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Article
Adult Medulloblastoma Demographic, Tumor and Treatment Impact since 2006: A Canadian University Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3104-3114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040271 - 14 Aug 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor that is extremely rare in adults; therefore, prospective studies are limited. We reviewed the information of all MB patients treated at the CHUM between 2006 and 2017. We divided our cohort by age and further divided [...] Read more.
Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor that is extremely rare in adults; therefore, prospective studies are limited. We reviewed the information of all MB patients treated at the CHUM between 2006 and 2017. We divided our cohort by age and further divided adult patients (53%) in two groups, those diagnosed between 2006–2012 and 2013–2017. In our adult population, median follow up was 26 months and SHH-activated MB comprised 39% of tumors. Adult 5yOS was 80% and first-line therapy led to a 5yPFS of 77%. The absence of radiosensitizing chemotherapy (100% vs. 50%; p = 0.033) negatively influenced 5yPFS. 96% of adult patients received radiotherapy and 48% of them received concomitant radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Complete surgical resection was performed on 85% of adults, but the extent of resection did not have a discernable impact on survival and did not change with time. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not clearly affect prognosis (5yOS 80% vs. 67%, p = 0.155; 5yPFS 78% vs. 67%, p = 0.114). From 2006–2012, the most common chemotherapy regimen (69%) was Cisplatinum, Lomustine and Vincristine, which was replaced in 2013 by Cisplatinum, Etoposide and Cyclophosphamide (77%) with a trend for worse survival. Nine patients recurred and seven of these (78%) were treated with palliative chemotherapy. In conclusion, we did not identify prognostic demographic or tumor factors in our adult MB population. The presence of radiosensitizing chemotherapy was associated with a more favorable PFS. Cisplatinum, Lomustine and Vincristine regimen might be a better adjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
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Article
Real-World Treatment Patterns, Clinical Outcomes, and Health Care Resource Utilization in Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3091-3103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040270 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 994
Abstract
The prognosis for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) is poor. Real-world evidence can highlight the unmet clinical need within this population. We conducted a population-based cohort study of ES-SCLC patients diagnosed in a large Canadian province (2010–2018) using electronic medical records and [...] Read more.
The prognosis for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) is poor. Real-world evidence can highlight the unmet clinical need within this population. We conducted a population-based cohort study of ES-SCLC patients diagnosed in a large Canadian province (2010–2018) using electronic medical records and administrative claims data. In all, 1941 ES-SCLC patients were included, of which 476 (25%) were recurrent cases. Median age at diagnosis was 70 years (range: 39–94) and 50.2% were men. Of the 1941 ES-SCLC patients, 29.5% received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 17.0% chemotherapy alone, 8.7% radiotherapy alone, and 44.8% received best supportive care. Chemotherapy was initiated by 46.5%, 8.5%, and 1.4% of first-, second-, and third-line patients, with lower uptake for recurrent cases. Median survival from first-, second-, and third-line chemotherapy was 7.82 months (95% CI: 7.50–8.22), 5.72 months (95% CI: 4.90–6.87), and 3.83 months (95% CI: 2.99–4.60). Among patients who received first-line therapy, the 2-year and 5-year survival was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.7–9.2) and 2.9% (95% CI: 1.8–4.5). In conclusion, initiation of first-line treatment in ES-SCLC was low with significant attrition in subsequent lines. These results underscore the need for effective front-line treatments and highlight the potential for novel therapies to improve patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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Article
Evaluating the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on New Cancer Diagnoses and Oncology Care in Manitoba
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3081-3090; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040269 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Individuals with cancer are vulnerable to infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19. Physical distancing, the reallocation of health care resources, and the implementation of procedures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 may also have serious consequences for people with cancer. We evaluated [...] Read more.
Individuals with cancer are vulnerable to infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19. Physical distancing, the reallocation of health care resources, and the implementation of procedures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 may also have serious consequences for people with cancer. We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on new cancer diagnoses and oncology care in Manitoba, Canada using an interrupted time series design and data from the Manitoba Cancer Registry and CancerCare Manitoba’s (CCMB) electronic medical record. In April 2020, there was a 23% decrease in new cancer diagnoses, a 21% decrease in pathology reports, and a 43% reduction in surgical resections. There was no difference in new cancer diagnoses by August 2020, surgery by July 2020, and pathology reports by September 2020. From April 2020 to June 2021, there was a 13% decrease in radiotherapy (RT) fractions, an 18% decrease in UCC visits, and a 52% decrease in in-person visits. There was no change in intravenous chemotherapy visits per month, first RT visits, or overall patient visits. The impact of COVID-19 on shifts in the stage at diagnosis and survival will be assessed in future analyses. Full article
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Article
Resection of Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms—A Single-Center Retrospective Outcome Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3071-3080; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040268 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Surgery remains the only curative treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN). Here, we report the outcome after surgery for non-functional pNEN at a European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) center in Germany between 2000 and 2019; cases were analyzed for surgical (Clavien–Dindo classification; CDc) [...] Read more.
Surgery remains the only curative treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN). Here, we report the outcome after surgery for non-functional pNEN at a European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) center in Germany between 2000 and 2019; cases were analyzed for surgical (Clavien–Dindo classification; CDc) and oncological outcomes. Forty-nine patients (tumor grading G1 n = 25, G2 n = 22, G3 n = 2), with a median age of 56 years, were included. Severe complications (CDc ≥ grade 3b) occurred in 11 patients (22.4%) and type B/C pancreatic fistulas (POPFs) occurred in 5 patients (10.2%); in-hospital mortality was 2% (n = 1). Six of seven patients with tumor recurrence (14.3%) had G2 tumors in the pancreatic body/tail. The median survival was 5.7 years (68 months; [1–228 months]). Neither the occurrence (p = 0.683) nor the severity of complications had an influence on the relapse behavior (p = 0.086). This also applied for a POPF (≥B, p = 0.609). G2 pNEN patients (n = 22) with and without tumor recurrence had similar median tumor sizes (4 cm and 3.9 cm, respectively). Five of the six relapsed G2 patients (83.3%) had tumor-positive lymph nodes (N+); all G2 pNEN patients with recurrence had initially been treated with distal pancreatic resection. Pancreatic resections for pNEN are safe but associated with relevant postoperative morbidity. Future studies are needed to evaluate suitable resection strategies for G2 pNEN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
Review
Decoding the Roles of Astrocytes and Hedgehog Signaling in Medulloblastoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3058-3070; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040267 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 915
Abstract
The molecular evolution of medulloblastoma is more complex than previously imagined, as emerging evidence suggests that multiple interactions between the tumor cells and components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) are important for tumor promotion and progression. The identification of several molecular networks within [...] Read more.
The molecular evolution of medulloblastoma is more complex than previously imagined, as emerging evidence suggests that multiple interactions between the tumor cells and components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) are important for tumor promotion and progression. The identification of several molecular networks within the TME, which interact with tumoral cells, has provided new clues to understand the tumorigenic roles of many TME components as well as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies regarding the roles of astrocytes in supporting sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup medulloblastoma (MB) and provide an overview of MB progression through SHH expression and signal transduction mechanisms into the complex tumor microenvironment. In addition, we highlight the associations between tumor and stromal cells as possible prognostic markers that could be targeted with new therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
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Article
The Supportive Care Needs of Regional and Remote Cancer Caregivers
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3041-3057; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040266 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Objective: As cancer survival rates continue to increase, so will the demand for care from family and friends, particularly in more isolated settings. This study aims to examine the needs of cancer caregivers in regional and remote Australia. Methods: A total of 239 [...] Read more.
Objective: As cancer survival rates continue to increase, so will the demand for care from family and friends, particularly in more isolated settings. This study aims to examine the needs of cancer caregivers in regional and remote Australia. Methods: A total of 239 informal (i.e., non-professional) cancer caregivers (e.g., family/friends) from regional and remote Queensland, Australia, completed the Comprehensive Needs Assessment Tool for Cancer Caregivers (CNAT-C). The frequencies of individuals reporting specific needs were calculated. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association between unmet needs and demographic characteristics and cancer type. Results: The most frequently endorsed needs were lodging near hospital (77%), information about the disease (74%), and tests and treatment (74%). The most frequent unmet needs were treatment near home (37%), help with economic burden (32%), and concerns about the person being cared for (32%). Younger and female caregivers were significantly more likely to report unmet needs overall (OR = 2.12; OR = 0.58), and unmet healthcare staff needs (OR = 0.35; OR = 1.99, respectively). Unmet family and social support needs were also significantly more likely among younger caregivers (OR = 0.35). Caregivers of breast cancer patients (OR = 0.43) and older caregivers (OR = 0.53) were significantly less likely to report unmet health and psychology needs. Proportions of participants reporting needs were largely similar across demographic groups and cancer type with some exceptions. Conclusions: Caregiver health, practical issues associated with travel, and emotional strain are all areas where regional and remote caregivers require more support. Caregivers’ age and gender, time since diagnosis and patient cancer type should be considered when determining the most appropriate supportive care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supportive Care Needs of Cancer Patients and Caregivers)
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Article
Evaluation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy-Associated Steatosis (CAS) in Colorectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3030-3040; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040265 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Chemotherapy-associated steatosis is poorly understood in the context of colorectal cancer. In this study, Stage II–III colorectal cancer patients were retrospectively selected to evaluate the frequency of chemotherapy-associated steatosis and to determine whether patients on statins throughout adjuvant chemotherapy develop chemotherapy-associated steatosis at [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy-associated steatosis is poorly understood in the context of colorectal cancer. In this study, Stage II–III colorectal cancer patients were retrospectively selected to evaluate the frequency of chemotherapy-associated steatosis and to determine whether patients on statins throughout adjuvant chemotherapy develop chemotherapy-associated steatosis at a lower frequency. Baseline and incident steatosis for up to one year from chemotherapy start date was assessed based on radiology. Of 269 patients, 76 (28.3%) had steatosis at baseline. Of the remaining 193 cases, patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 135) had 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 2.79) times the adjusted risk of developing steatosis compared to patients not receiving chemotherapy (n = 58). Among patients who underwent chemotherapy, those using statins for pre-existing hyperlipidemia (n = 37) had 0.71 (95% CI, 0.10 to 2.75) times the risk of developing steatosis compared to patients who were not prevalent users of statins (n = 98). Chemotherapeutic treatment of Stage II–III colorectal cancer appears to be consistent with a moderately increased risk of steatosis, although larger studies are necessary to assess the significance of this observation. Prospective trials should be considered to further explore the potential for protective use of statins in this curative patient population. Full article
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Article
SOX2 and Bcl-2 as a Novel Prognostic Value in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3015-3029; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040264 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is a stem cell transcription factor and a major regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In many types of cancer, SOX2 is dysregulated due to overexpression associated with tumor progression and low survival rate. [...] Read more.
Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is a stem cell transcription factor and a major regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In many types of cancer, SOX2 is dysregulated due to overexpression associated with tumor progression and low survival rate. Many HCC cases encounter recurrence and metastasis which might be due to CSCs and also apoptosis. Since little is known about the expression pattern of SOX2 and apoptotic genes in HCC, we aimed to determine the prognostic significance of SOX2, Bax, and Bcl-2 in clinicopathological features, tumor progression, and survival rate of the HCC patients. The expression of SOX2, Bax, and Bcl-2 were evaluated using qRT-PCR in 53 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE) of patients and 44 controls. Correlation of these genes was analyzed with clinicopathological features and tumor progression. The correlationship between SOX2 expression and ALBI grade as prognostic indicators were calculated. Survival rates were determined by Kaplan–Meier survival curves. SOX2 and Bcl-2 were remarkably overexpressed in HCC patients compared to controls (p = 0.04 and p = 0.003, respectively). A significant association was found for both SOX2 and Bcl-2 overexpression with TNM staging (p = 0.02, p = 0.04) and tumor grading (p = 0.01, p = 0.003), respectively. A significant correlation was observed: patients with SOX2 overexpression had a lower 5-year overall survival rate (p = 0.04); however, there was no significant association between Bcl-2 and survival (p = 0.5). Collectively, overexpression of SOX2 and Bcl-2, alone or combined, may be a potential marker to evaluate prognosis and response to HCC treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
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Article
“We’re on a Merry-Go-Round”: Reflections of Patients and Carers after Completing Treatment for Sarcoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 3003-3014; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040263 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Sarcoma is a rare cancer that has a significant impact on patients’ and carers’ quality of life. Despite this, there has been a paucity of research exploring the diverse experiences of patients and carers following sarcoma treatment. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Sarcoma is a rare cancer that has a significant impact on patients’ and carers’ quality of life. Despite this, there has been a paucity of research exploring the diverse experiences of patients and carers following sarcoma treatment. The aim of this study was to explore patients’ and carers’ reflections on life after treatment for sarcoma. A qualitative research design with a social constructionist epistemology was used. Participants included patients previously treated for sarcoma (n = 21) and family carers of patients treated for sarcoma (n = 16). Participants completed semi-structured interviews which were analysed using thematic analysis. Three primary themes were identified: “This journey is never going to be over”, “But what happens when I am better?”, and finding a silver lining. Participants represented sarcoma as having a long-term, and sometimes indefinite, threat on their life that they had limited control over. Conclusions: This study highlight the heterogeneous and ongoing needs of sarcoma survivors and their families. Patients and carers strove to translate their experiences in a meaningful way, such as by improving outcomes for other people affected by sarcoma. Parental carers in particular attempted to protect the patient from the ongoing stress of managing the disease. Full article
Article
Personality Traits and Urinary Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Health Distress in Patients with a Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2993-3002; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040262 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Objective: With a prolonged natural history compared with many other cancers, prostate cancer patients have high rates of mental illness over the duration of their treatment. Here, we examine the relationship between personality and mental health distress in a sample of prostate cancer [...] Read more.
Objective: With a prolonged natural history compared with many other cancers, prostate cancer patients have high rates of mental illness over the duration of their treatment. Here, we examine the relationship between personality and mental health distress in a sample of prostate cancer patients. Methods: This study was conducted in the Canadian Maritime provinces, where a cohort of 189 men with prostate cancer were invited to complete a quality-of-life online survey between May 2017 and December 2019. The presence or absence of screening positive for mental health illness was the primary outcome and was assessed using Kessler’s 10-item scale (K10). Urinary symptoms were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). The ten-item personality inventory (TIPI) assessed extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability (or neuroticism), and openness to experiences. A multivariate logistic regression model was created to examine the association between personality, urinary symptoms, and mental health distress, while controlling for time from diagnosis, treatment type, age, and multimorbidity. Results: Screening positive for mental illness (18.0%) was associated with personality traits of low levels of emotional stability (OR = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03–0.20) and moderate to severe urinary problems (OR = 5.21, 95% CI: 1.94–14.05)). There was no identified association between treatment received for prostate cancer and personality type. Conclusion: Screening for mental health illness in this population may help reduce morbidity associated with cancer treatment, as well as identify patients who may be at risk of mental health distress and could benefit from individualized mental health support services. These findings suggest that multidisciplinary care is essential for the management of these patients. Full article
Case Report
Carcinoembryonic Antigen Increase in a Patient with Colon Cancer Who Have Achieved Complete Remission and Negative 18F-FDG PET/CT: Don’t Forget the Thyroid!
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2987-2992; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040261 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker especially used to follow a patient with colorectal cancer. However, it is non-specific and could be increased in several cancers and some benign conditions. We report the case of a 70-year-old man followed since 2014 [...] Read more.
Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker especially used to follow a patient with colorectal cancer. However, it is non-specific and could be increased in several cancers and some benign conditions. We report the case of a 70-year-old man followed since 2014 for a left colon adenocarcinoma with the persistence of an increased CEA. There was no evidence of recurrence, but a right lobar thyroid nodule without a significantly increased uptake was incidentally discovered on the CT scan of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT. We suspected a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) explaining the persistent elevation of CEA. Plasma calcitonin levels were 47 ng/L (N < 10). Fine needle aspiration cytology found atypia of undetermined significance and the patient was reluctant to undergo surgery without any further exploration. We performed a 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET/CT preoperatively which revealed a punctiform focus of the right thyroid lobe corresponding to a pT1aN1aMxR0 medullary thyroid carcinoma, histopathologically confirmed. This case highlights that despite the potential usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in case of an unknown source of elevated CEA this imaging may be falsely negative as in the case of MTC and should lead to further explorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Review
Extramammary Paget’s Disease: Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, and Treatment with Focus on Recent Developments
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2969-2986; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040260 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm that usually develops in apocrine gland-bearing areas, such as the vulva, scrotum, and penis. EMPD may present with a focal, multifocal, or an ectopic lesion. Clinically, EMPD lesions often exhibit infiltrative erythema, which is sometimes [...] Read more.
Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm that usually develops in apocrine gland-bearing areas, such as the vulva, scrotum, and penis. EMPD may present with a focal, multifocal, or an ectopic lesion. Clinically, EMPD lesions often exhibit infiltrative erythema, which is sometimes similar to other skin disorders such as eczema. While primary EMPD arises as intraepithelial neoplasm of the epidermis, EMPD-like lesions may occur from epidermotropic spread of malignant cells or direct extension from an underlying internal neoplasm, known as secondary EMPD. Because treatment strategies differ for primary EMPD and secondary EMPD, accurate diagnosis based on detailed histopathological evaluation is required. In the early stages, EMPD usually shows indolent growth, and most cases are diagnosed as carcinoma in situ. However, invasive lesions may result in metastases, and deep invasion is associated with high incidence of metastases. Conventional chemotherapies have been used for EMPD treatment in patients with distant metastases, but the efficacy is not satisfactory, and the prognosis for such patients remains poor. Recent studies have provided various insights into the molecular pathogenesis of the development and advancement of EMPD, which may lead to novel treatment approaches for metastatic EMPD. This review addresses the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of EMPD with focus on recent progress in understanding this disease. Full article
Communication
Remote Contouring and Virtual Review during the COVID-19 Pandemic (RECOVR-COVID19): Results of a Quality Improvement Initiative for Virtual Resident Training in Radiation Oncology
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2961-2968; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040259 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
The need to minimize in-person interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to fewer clinical learning opportunities for trainees. With ongoing utilization of virtual platforms for resident education, efforts to maximize their value are essential. Herein we describe a resident-led quality improvement initiative [...] Read more.
The need to minimize in-person interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to fewer clinical learning opportunities for trainees. With ongoing utilization of virtual platforms for resident education, efforts to maximize their value are essential. Herein we describe a resident-led quality improvement initiative to optimize remote contouring and virtual contour review. From April to June 2020, radiation oncology (RO) residents at our institution were assigned modified duties. We implemented a program to source and assign cases to residents for remote contouring and to promote and optimize virtual contour review. Resident-perceived educational value was prospectively collected and analyzed. All nine RO residents at our institution (PGY1–5) participated, and 97 cases were contoured during the evaluation period. Introduction of the Remote Contouring and Virtual Review (RECOVR) program coincided with a significant increase in mean cases contoured per week, from 5.5 to 17.3 (p = 0.015), and an increased proportion of cases receiving virtual review, from 14.8% to 58.6% (p < 0.001). Residents reported that the value of immediate feedback during virtual review was similar to that of in-person review (4.6 ± 0.1 vs. 4.5 ± 0.2, p = 0.803) and significantly higher than feedback received post hoc (e.g., email; 3.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.001). The implementation of a remote process for contour review led to significant increases in contouring, and virtual contour review was rated as highly as in-person interactions. Our findings provide a data-driven rationale and framework for integrating remote contouring and virtual review into competency-based medical education. Full article
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Article
An Investigation of the Effect of Attachment on Distress among Partners of Patients with Ovarian Cancer and Their Relationship with the Cancer Care Providers
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2950-2960; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040258 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Caregivers of patients with ovarian cancer experience distress related to caregiving difficulties within cancer care. Attachment insecurity is a well-known protector of distress, particularly as it relates to support from others. Using multivariate analyses, this study sought to determine the contribution of attachment [...] Read more.
Caregivers of patients with ovarian cancer experience distress related to caregiving difficulties within cancer care. Attachment insecurity is a well-known protector of distress, particularly as it relates to support from others. Using multivariate analyses, this study sought to determine the contribution of attachment insecurity and experiences with cancer care on symptoms of depression and anxiety, and investigated whether attachment insecurity moderated the relationship between caregiving experiences and distress. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses were conducted as part of a larger cross-sectional questionnaire study of distress among partners of patients with ovarian cancer. Participants (n = 82) were predominantly male, white, had household incomes over $100,000 and postsecondary education. Caregiving experiences explained 56% of the variance in depression, and 28% of the variance in anxiety. Specifically, lack of time for social relations as a result of caregiving significantly predicted depression and anxiety. Attachment anxiety correlated with both depression and anxiety, but attachment avoidance did not. Neither attachment anxiety nor attachment avoidance significantly contributed to distress variance, and neither moderated any of the relationships between caregiving experiences and distress outcomes. This study highlights the importance for cancer care to recognize the effect of caregiving responsibilities upon caregivers’ mental health, regardless of vulnerability to distress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supportive Care Needs of Cancer Patients and Caregivers)
Review
Extreme Hypofractionation with SBRT in Localized Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2933-2949; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040257 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men around the world. Radiotherapy is a standard of care treatment option for men with localized prostate cancer. Over the years, radiation delivery modalities have contributed to increased precision of treatment, employing radiobiological insights [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men around the world. Radiotherapy is a standard of care treatment option for men with localized prostate cancer. Over the years, radiation delivery modalities have contributed to increased precision of treatment, employing radiobiological insights to shorten the overall treatment time, improving the control of the disease without increasing toxicities. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) represents an extreme form of hypofractionated radiotherapy in which treatment is usually delivered in 1–5 fractions. This review assesses the main efficacy and toxicity data of SBRT in non-metastatic prostate cancer and discusses the potential to implement this scheme in routine clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Case Report
A Case of Stevens–Johnson Syndrome in Recurrent Late-Stage Ovarian Cancer Patient after Management of Chronic Pain with Elastomeric Pump
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2928-2932; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040256 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
(1) Background. Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe mucocutaneous reactions, characterized by extensive necrosis and detachment of the epidermis. (2) Case presentation. We present a case of a 46-year-old patient with late-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer who was primarily [...] Read more.
(1) Background. Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe mucocutaneous reactions, characterized by extensive necrosis and detachment of the epidermis. (2) Case presentation. We present a case of a 46-year-old patient with late-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer who was primarily treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval debulking, which was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. At first recurrence, she was again treated with chemotherapy, and due to severe abdominal pain, an elastomeric pump containing analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and ondansetron was administered. In the same month, she was admitted to the hospital due to severe dysphagia, and in the following days she developed haemorrhagic vesiculobullous lesions on the facial skin and trunk. Stevens–Johnson syndrome was confirmed and ondansetron as a plausible leading cause was discontinued. Despite multimodal treatment, her condition deteriorated, and she died. (3) Discussion and conclusion. Although gynaecologists rarely encounter Stevens–Johnson syndrome, high mortality of the disease should ensure a low threshold for diagnosing and treating this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
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Article
Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognostic Factors in Ovarian Metastases from Right- and Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2914-2927; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040255 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Background: Secondary tumors of the ovary (STOs) account for 10–25% of all ovarian malignancies, including metastases from primary gynecological tumors. Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the most common causes of STOs in Western countries. Despite it being well-known that [...] Read more.
Background: Secondary tumors of the ovary (STOs) account for 10–25% of all ovarian malignancies, including metastases from primary gynecological tumors. Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the most common causes of STOs in Western countries. Despite it being well-known that CRC originating from the right versus left side of the colon/rectum differ substantially, there is a paucity of information regarding the effect of the primary tumor sidedness on the clinicopathological characteristics of STOs. Methods: This retrospective, observational chart review study included patients with histologically confirmed STOs of CRC origin diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2019. The clinicopathological characteristics of STOs originating from left-sided and right-sided CRC were compared. Univariable and multivariable analyses employing elastic net Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate potential prognostic factors. Further, the role of imaging methods in STOs diagnostics was evaluated. Results: Fifty-one patients with STOs of colorectal origin were identified. The primary tumor originated in the right and left colon/rectum in 39% and 61% of the cases, respectively. STOs originating from right-sided primary tumors were more frequently bilateral, associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis, had the ovarian surface affected by the tumor, and contained a mucinous component. The independent prognostic factors for overall survival in the whole cohort included: the presence of macroscopic residual disease after cytoreductive surgery, menopausal status, the application of systemic therapy, and the application of targeted therapy. In 54% of cases, the imaging methods failed to determine the laterality of the STOs correctly as compared to pathological reports and/or intraoperative findings. Conclusion: STOs originating from left-sided and right-sided CRC show distinct clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, different metastatic pathways might be employed according to the primary tumor sidedness. Considering the discrepancies between radiological assessment and histopathological findings regarding the laterality of STOs, bilateral adnexectomy should be advised whenever feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
Recommending Unfunded Innovative Cancer Therapies: Ethical vs. Clinical Perspectives among Oncologists on a Public Healthcare System—A Mixed-Methods Study
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2902-2913; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040254 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
Over the past decade, there has been a growing development of innovative technologies to treat cancer. Many of these technologies are expensive and not funded by health funds. The present study examined physicians’ perceptions of the ethical and clinical aspects of the recommendation [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, there has been a growing development of innovative technologies to treat cancer. Many of these technologies are expensive and not funded by health funds. The present study examined physicians’ perceptions of the ethical and clinical aspects of the recommendation and use of unfunded technologies for cancer treatment. This mixed-methods study surveyed 127 oncologists regarding their perceptions toward using unfunded innovative cancer treatment technologies, followed by in-depth interviews with 16 oncologists. Most respondents believed that patients should be offered all treatment alternatives, regardless of their financial situation. However, 59% indicated that they often face dilemmas regarding recommending new unfunded treatments to patients with financial difficulties and without private health insurance. Over a third (38%) stated that they felt uncomfortable discussing the cost of treatment with patients. A predictive model found that physicians facing patients whose medical condition worsened due to an inability to access new treatments, and who expressed the opinion that physicians can assist in locating funding for patients who cannot afford treatments, were more likely to recommend unfunded innovative therapies to patients (F = 5.22, R2 = 0.15, p < 0.001). Subsequent in-depth interviews revealed four key themes: economic considerations in choosing therapy, patient–physician communication, the public healthcare fund, and discussion of treatment costs. Physicians feel a professional commitment to offer patients the best medical care and a moral duty to discuss costs and minimize patients’ financial difficulty. There is a need for careful and balanced use of innovative life-prolonging technologies while putting patients at the center of discourse on this complex and controversial issue. It is essential to develop a psychosocial support program for physicians and patients dealing with ethical and psychosocial dilemmas and to set guidelines for oncologists to conduct a comprehensive and collaborative physician–patient discourse regarding all aspects of treatment. Full article
Article
Relationship between Provider Communication Behaviors and the Quality of Life for Patients with Advanced Cancer in Saudi Arabia
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2893-2901; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040253 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Context: Patients with advanced cancer from Saudi Arabia are often not well informed about diagnoses, prognoses, and treatment options. Poor communication can lead to health-care decisions that insufficiently meet patients’ preferences, concerns, and needs and that subsequently affect patients’ quality of life. Objectives: [...] Read more.
Context: Patients with advanced cancer from Saudi Arabia are often not well informed about diagnoses, prognoses, and treatment options. Poor communication can lead to health-care decisions that insufficiently meet patients’ preferences, concerns, and needs and that subsequently affect patients’ quality of life. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between provider communication behaviors and the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer. Method: A cross-sectional, correlation design was used in the present study, in which 159 patients with confirmed diagnoses of stage III or IV solid cancer were surveyed. Results: The mean summary score of the patients’ quality of life was 57.31. We found a significant relationship between provider communication behaviors and patient quality of life (β = 0.18, b = 0.35, SE = 0.15, p = 0.021). In addition, R2 shows that only 3.4% of variance in patient quality of life is predicated on provider communication behaviors. Conclusions: The relationship between provider communication behaviors and patient quality of life was low (r = 0.18). A possible reason for this is that provider communication behaviors are not the only factor that affects patient quality of life; other variables, such as the patient’s age, cancer type, and level of awareness, can also have an effect. Another possible explanation is that communication behaviors between patients and providers may vary depending on the level of cultural contact. Full article
Systematic Review
Salvage Radical Prostatectomy for Radio-Recurrent Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review of Oncologic, Histopathologic and Functional Outcomes and Predictors of Good Response
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2881-2892; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040252 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 645
Abstract
A valid treatment option for recurrence after definite radiotherapy (RT) for localized prostate cancer (PC) is salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP). However, data on SRP are scarce, possibly resulting in an underutilization. A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, and Web of [...] Read more.
A valid treatment option for recurrence after definite radiotherapy (RT) for localized prostate cancer (PC) is salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP). However, data on SRP are scarce, possibly resulting in an underutilization. A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, and Web of Science databases including studies published between January 1980 and April 2020. Overall, 23 English language articles including a total number of 2323 patients were selected according to PRISMA criteria. The overall median follow-up was 37.5 months (IQR 35.5–52.5). Biochemical-recurrence (BCR)-free probability ranged from 34% to 83% at five years, respectively, and from 31% to 37% at 10 years. Cancer specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) ranged from 88.7% to 98% and 64% to 95% at five years and from 72% to 83% and 65% to 72% at 10 years, respectively. Positive surgical margins ranged from 14% to 45.8% and pathologic organ-confined disease was reported from 20% to 57%. The rate of pathologic > T2-disease ranged from 37% to 80% and pN1 disease differed between 0% to 78.4%. Pre-SRP PSA, pre-SRP Gleason Score (GS), pathologic stage after SRP, and pathologic lymph node involvement seemed to be the strongest prognostic factors for good outcomes. SRP provides accurate histopathological and functional outcomes, as well as durable cancer control. Careful patient counseling in a shared decision-making process is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Article
3q26 Amplifications in Cervical Squamous Carcinomas
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2868-2880; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040251 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Background: Squamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix often carry mutations of the gene encoding for the catalytic sub-unit of kinase PI3K, PIK3CA. The locus of this gene at chromosome 3q26 and neighboring loci are also commonly amplified. The landscape of 3q26-amplified cases [...] Read more.
Background: Squamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix often carry mutations of the gene encoding for the catalytic sub-unit of kinase PI3K, PIK3CA. The locus of this gene at chromosome 3q26 and neighboring loci are also commonly amplified. The landscape of 3q26-amplified cases have not been previously characterized in detail in cervical cancer. Methods: Published genomic data and associated clinical data from TCGA cervical cancer cohort were analyzed at cBioportal for amplifications in genes at 3q26. The clinical and molecular characteristics of the group of patients with 3q26 amplifications was compared with the group without 3q26 amplifications. Comparative prevalence of amplification and expression of genes at 3q26 in amplified squamous cervical cancer cases were surveyed as well as 3q26 amplifications in cervical cancer cell line databases. Results: Amplification of 3q26 locus is a prevalent molecular lesion in cervical squamous cell carcinomas encountered in about 15% of cases in TCGA cohort of 247 patients. Cancer-related genes commonly amplified from 3q26 include PIK3CA, TBL1XR1, DCUN1D1, SOX2, MECOM, PRKCI, and TERC. Amplified cases do not completely overlap with PIK3CA mutant cases. Differences exist between 3q26-amplified and non-amplified carcinomas in the frequency of mutations and frequency of other amplifications. Most commonly over-expressed genes in 3q26 amplified cases include PIK3CA, TBL1XR1, DCUN1D1, and less commonly SOX2 and PRKCI. Conclusion: The subset of squamous cervical carcinomas with 3q26 amplifications is not overlapping with cancers carrying PIK3CA mutations and contains, besides PIK3CA, other cancer-associated genes that are over-expressed at the mRNA level, including TBL1XR1 and DCUN1D1. DCUN1D1, a regulator of SCF ubiquitin ligase activity, may be a relevant pathogenic player given the importance of ubiquitination and the proteasome in the disease. These observations could form the basis for therapeutic exploitation in this subset of squamous cervical carcinomas. Full article
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Systematic Review
Efficacy of Oral Cryotherapy in the Prevention of Oral Mucositis Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(4), 2852-2867; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28040250 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Background: This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis, as well as to assess the quality of the results by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation [...] Read more.
Background: This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis, as well as to assess the quality of the results by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Methods: A comprehensive search of three databases including Medline, Embase and Central was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that used oral cryotherapy for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. The primary outcome was the incidence of oral mucositis for trials employing oral cryotherapy as the intervention for the prevention of oral mucositis. The meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model and random errors of the meta-analyses were detected by trial sequential analysis. Results: A total of 14 RCTs with 1577 participants were included in the present meta-analysis. Patients treated with oral cryotherapy were associated with a significantly lower risk of developing oral mucositis of any grade (risk ratio (RR), 0.67 (95% CI: 0.56–0.81, p < 0.05)). Findings from the subgroup analyses showed that oral cryotherapy significantly reduced the risk of oral mucositis in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (RR 0.69, CI: 0.54–0.89, p < 0.05) as well as chemotherapy (RR 0.66, CI: 0.58–0.75, p < 0.05). Findings from the trial sequential analysis suggested that the evidence on oral cryotherapy as a preventive intervention for oral mucositis in patients with solid malignancies receiving conventional chemotherapy was conclusive. Conclusion: Oral cryotherapy is effective in preventing oral mucositis in patients undergoing chemotherapy for the management of solid malignancies. The use of oral cryotherapy in preventing oral mucositis in bone marrow transplantation settings showed promising efficacy, but the evidence is not conclusive and requires more high-quality randomized controlled trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Palliative and Supportive Care)
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