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Curr. Oncol., Volume 28, Issue 5 (October 2021) – 78 articles

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Article
Effectiveness and Safety of First-Line Pembrolizumab in Older Adults with PD-L1 Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Alberta Immunotherapy Database
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4213-4222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050357 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2021
Abstract
The emergence of immunotherapy revolutionized the treatment of non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC), with multiple landmark clinical trials establishing the efficacy of these agents. However, many patients who receive immunotherapy in clinical practice would be considered clinical trial ineligible. One such population that is often [...] Read more.
The emergence of immunotherapy revolutionized the treatment of non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC), with multiple landmark clinical trials establishing the efficacy of these agents. However, many patients who receive immunotherapy in clinical practice would be considered clinical trial ineligible. One such population that is often under-represented in clinical trials is older adults. In the current study, we evaluated clinical and safety outcomes in this population. Overall, older adults (>70 years of age) and younger adults had comparable clinical outcomes with an equivalent objective response rate (ORR), time to treatment failure (TTF), and median overall survival (p = 0.67, p = 0.98, and p = 0.91, respectively). Furthermore, the safety outcomes were equivalent between the cohorts with similar rates of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), irAE-related hospitalizations, and all-cause hospitalization (p = 0.99, p = 0.63, and p = 0.74, respectively). While older age was not found to impact overall survival, multivariant analysis revealed that a poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, low body-mass-index (BMI), and poor/intermediate lung immune prognostic index (LIPI) were all associated with worse survival. In conclusion, age does not impact the efficacy or safety of pembrolizumab in NSCLC, and therefore advanced age should not be a deterrent for treating these patients with pembrolizumab. Physicians and care providers can thus focus on other factors that may influence therapeutic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
Article
Changes in Health State Utility Values in Japanese Patients with End-Stage Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4203-4212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050356 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2021
Abstract
We aimed to determine the dynamic trends in health state utility values (HSUVs) in patients with end-stage breast cancer. We selected 181 patients comprising 137 with primary breast cancer (PBC) and 44 with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) (28 survivors and 16 patients with [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine the dynamic trends in health state utility values (HSUVs) in patients with end-stage breast cancer. We selected 181 patients comprising 137 with primary breast cancer (PBC) and 44 with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) (28 survivors and 16 patients with MBC death). HSUVs were 0.90 and 0.89 in patients with PBC and 0.83 and 0.80 in those with MBC (survivors) at 6 and 3 months, respectively, before the end of the observation period; these values were 0.73 and 0.66, respectively, in those with MBC (deceased) during the aforementioned period. The root-mean-squared error (RMSE) for the decrease in HSUVs over 3 months was 0.10, 0.096, and 0.175 for patients with PBC, MBC (survivors), and MBC (deceased), respectively. One-way analysis of variance for differences in absolute error among the groups was significant (p = 0.0102). Multiple comparisons indicated a difference of 0.068 in absolute error between patients with PBC and those with MBC (deceased) (p = 0.0082). Patients with end-stage breast cancer had well-controlled HSUVs 3 months before death, with a sharp decline in HSUVs in the 3 months leading up to death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
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Article
At the Heart of It All: Emotions of Consequence for the Conceptualization of Caregiver-Reported Outcomes in the Context of Colorectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4184-4202; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050355 (registering DOI) - 16 Oct 2021
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be demanding for primary caregivers; yet, there is insufficient evidence describing the caregiver-reported outcomes (CROs) that matter most to caregivers. CROs refer to caregivers’ assessments of their own health status as a result of supporting a patient. The study [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be demanding for primary caregivers; yet, there is insufficient evidence describing the caregiver-reported outcomes (CROs) that matter most to caregivers. CROs refer to caregivers’ assessments of their own health status as a result of supporting a patient. The study purpose was to describe the emotions that were most impactful to caregivers of patients with CRC, and how the importance caregivers attribute to these emotions changed from diagnosis throughout treatment. Guided by qualitative Interpretive Description, we analyzed 25 caregiver and 37 CRC patient interviews, either as individuals or as caregiver-patient dyads (six interviews), using inductive coding and constant comparative techniques. We found that the emotional aspect of caring for a patient with CRC was at the heart of caregiving. Caregiver experiences that engendered emotions of consequence included: (1) facing the patient’s life-changing diagnosis and an uncertain future, (2) needing to be with the patient throughout the never-ending nightmare of treatment, (3) bearing witness to patient suffering, (4) being worn down by unrelenting caregiver responsibilities, (5) navigating their relationship, and (6) enduring unwanted change. The broad range of emotions important to caregivers contributes to comprehensive foundational evidence for future conceptualization and the use of CROs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supportive Care Needs of Cancer Patients and Caregivers)
Communication
Considerations for Developing a Reassessment Process: Report from the Canadian Real-World Evidence for Value of Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Collaboration’s Reassessment and Uptake Working Group
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4174-4183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050354 (registering DOI) - 16 Oct 2021
Abstract
The Canadian Real-world Evidence for Value in Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Collaboration was established to develop a framework for generating and using real-world evidence (RWE) to inform the reassessment of cancer drugs following initial health technology assessment (HTA). The Reassessment and Uptake Working Group [...] Read more.
The Canadian Real-world Evidence for Value in Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Collaboration was established to develop a framework for generating and using real-world evidence (RWE) to inform the reassessment of cancer drugs following initial health technology assessment (HTA). The Reassessment and Uptake Working Group (RWG) is one of the five established CanREValue Working Groups. The RWG aims to develop considerations for incorporating RWE for HTA reassessment and strategies for using RWE to reassess drug funding decisions. Between February 2018 and December 2019, the RWG attended four teleconferences (with follow-up surveys) and two in-person meetings to discuss recommendations for the development of a reassessment process and potential barriers and facilitators. Modified Delphi methods were used to gather input. A draft report of recommendations (to December 2018) was shared for public consultation (December 2019 to January 2020). Initial considerations for developing a reassessment process were proposed. Specifically, reassessment can be initiated by diverse stakeholders, including decision makers from public drug plans or industry stakeholders. The reassessment process should be modelled after existing deliberation and recommendation frameworks used by HTA agencies. Proposed reassessment outcome categories include maintaining status quo, revisiting funding criteria, renegotiating price, or disinvesting. Overall, these initial considerations will serve as the basis for future advancements by the Collaboration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Access to Cancer Drugs in Canada)
Brief Report
Single-Center Comparison of [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA and [18F]-PSMA PET–CT for Imaging Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4167-4173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050353 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2021
Abstract
Introduction: the diagnostic performance of [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA PET–CT imaging was compared retrospectively to [18F]-PSMA PET–CT in prostate cancer patients with recurrent disease and in the primary staging of selected patients with advanced local and possible metastatic disease. Methods: We retrospectively [...] Read more.
Introduction: the diagnostic performance of [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA PET–CT imaging was compared retrospectively to [18F]-PSMA PET–CT in prostate cancer patients with recurrent disease and in the primary staging of selected patients with advanced local and possible metastatic disease. Methods: We retrospectively selected a total of 100 patients, who were consecutively examined in our department, with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy or who had progressive local and possible metastatic disease in the last 3 months prior to this investigation. All patients were examined with a dedicated PET–CT scanner (Biograph; Siemens Healthineers). A total of 250 MBq (3.5 MBq per kg bodyweight, range 230–290 MBq) of [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA or [18-F]-PSMA was applied intravenously. PET images were performed 1 h post-injection (skull base to mid-thigh). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of PSMA-positive lesions and the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of the right liver lobe were measured. Results: All but 9/50 of the patients (18%; PSA range: 0.01–0.7 µg/L) studied with [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA and 6/50 of the ones (12%; PSA range: 0.01–4.2) studied with [18F]-PSMA had at least one positive PSMA lesion shown by PET–CT. The total number of lesions was higher with [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA (209 vs. 191); however, the median number of lesions was one for [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA and two for [18F]-PSMA. Interestingly, the median SUVmean of the right liver lobe was slightly higher for [18F]-PSMA (11.8 vs. 8.9). Conclusions: [64Cu]-DOTAGA-PSMA and [18F]-PSMA have comparable detection rates for the assessment of residual disease in patients with recurrent or primary progressive prostate cancer. The uptake in the liver is moderately different, and therefore at least the SUVs of the lesions in both studies would not be comparable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment)
Article
Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictive Marker of Response to Atezolizumab Plus Bevacizumab for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4157-4166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050352 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 143
Abstract
Background: Combination therapy with anti-programmed death-ligand 1 monoclonal antibody atezolizumab plus anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent bevacizumab (Atezo/Bev) was approved in 2020 as a first-line treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Atezo/Bev therapy is relatively well tolerated; however, factors that can predict its [...] Read more.
Background: Combination therapy with anti-programmed death-ligand 1 monoclonal antibody atezolizumab plus anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent bevacizumab (Atezo/Bev) was approved in 2020 as a first-line treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Atezo/Bev therapy is relatively well tolerated; however, factors that can predict its response have not yet been reported. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could predict the therapeutic response in patients with HCC treated with Atezo/Bev therapy. Methods: We analyzed the course of 40 patients with HCC who received Atezo/Bev therapy at our hospital and attempted to identify pretreatment factors that could predict response by comparing those who achieved disease control with those who did not. Results: The pretreatment NLR value in patients who achieved disease control was significantly lower than that in patients with disease progression (2.47 vs. 4.48, p = 0.013). Using the optimal NLR cut-off value for predicting response (3.21) determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, patients with NLR ≤ 3.21 had significantly better progression-free survival than those with NLR > 3.21 (p < 0.0001), although there were no significant differences in liver function or tumor-related background factors between the two groups. Conclusions: The pretreatment NLR value may be a useful predictor of response to Atezo/Bev therapy for HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions)
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Review
Exercise to Reduce Anthracycline-Mediated Cardiovascular Complications in Breast Cancer Survivors
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4139-4156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050351 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 229
Abstract
While developments in cancer therapeutics have greatly reduced morbidity and mortality in females with breast cancer, it comes at a cost of an increased risk of cardiovascular complications. In particular, anthracyclines, like doxorubicin, which are a mainstay of current chemotherapy regimens, are associated [...] Read more.
While developments in cancer therapeutics have greatly reduced morbidity and mortality in females with breast cancer, it comes at a cost of an increased risk of cardiovascular complications. In particular, anthracyclines, like doxorubicin, which are a mainstay of current chemotherapy regimens, are associated with dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Exercise has been widely accepted as an effective intervention in reducing cardiovascular risk in a variety of different clinical conditions. However, the benefits of exercise in anthracycline-mediated cardiotoxicity are not clearly understood. First, this review discusses the pre-clinical studies which have elucidated the cardioprotective mechanisms of aerobic and resistance exercise in improving cardiovascular function in the setting of anthracycline treatment. Next, it aims to summarize the results of aerobic and resistance exercise clinical trials conducted in females with breast cancer who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The review further discusses the current exercise guidelines for women undergoing chemotherapy and contraindications for exercise. Finally, the review addresses gaps in research, specifically the need for further clinical trials to establish a recommended exercise prescription within this patient population. Full article
Review
Neoadjuvant Therapy in Lung Cancer: What Is Most Important: Objective Response Rate or Major Pathological Response?
by and
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4129-4138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050350 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Lung cancer is the most fatal and frequently diagnosed malignant tumor. Neoadjuvant therapy is a promising approach for prolonging survival and increasing the chance of cure rates for patients with potentially resectable disease. Currently, many therapeutic alternatives, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the most fatal and frequently diagnosed malignant tumor. Neoadjuvant therapy is a promising approach for prolonging survival and increasing the chance of cure rates for patients with potentially resectable disease. Currently, many therapeutic alternatives, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, are continually being explored to enrich the content of neoadjuvant therapy. However, neoadjuvant therapy remains to have no unified evaluation standards. Overall survival (OS) is the “gold standard” for evaluating the clinical benefit of cancer treatment, but it needs years for a reliable evaluation. Hence, researchers need to identify surrogate endpoints that can predict OS accurately and reliably without long follow-up periods. In this review, we describe the research progress of different neoadjuvant therapies and explore their response evaluation, aiming to identify stronger predictors of OS. Full article
Article
Impact of Split Dosing the First Rituximab Infusion in Patients with High Lymphocyte Count
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4118-4128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050349 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
The most common adverse reactions to rituximab are infusion-related reactions (IRR). We evaluated the efficacy of split dosing the first rituximab infusion over two days to reduce IRR incidence in patients with hematological cancer and a high lymphocyte count. This is a retrospective [...] Read more.
The most common adverse reactions to rituximab are infusion-related reactions (IRR). We evaluated the efficacy of split dosing the first rituximab infusion over two days to reduce IRR incidence in patients with hematological cancer and a high lymphocyte count. This is a retrospective observational study conducted in two healthcare centers in Quebec, Canada. The study enrolled patients with white blood cell counts ≥25.0 × 109/L who received their first rituximab dose for hematological cancer between December 2007 and May 2020. One healthcare center used asymmetrical split dosing, while the other used symmetrical split dosing. A total of 183 treatment episodes were collected from 143 patients. Among patients who received a fractionated dosing schedule, 42% developed an IRR from the first rituximab infusion compared with 50% for the standard protocol (adjusted relative risk, 0.89; p = 0.540). No significant difference was observed in IRR severity between either groups. However, 24% of patients who received the asymmetrical protocol developed an IRR compared to 68% for the symmetrical protocol (adjusted relative risk, 0.32; p = 0.003). These results suggest that an asymmetrical split dosing could be effective in reducing the incidence of IRR and is preferable to a symmetrical one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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Review
Incidence, Etiology, Prevention and Management of Ureteroenteric Strictures after Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy: A Review of Published Evidence and Personal Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4109-4117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050348 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Benign ureteroenteric anastomosis strictures (UESs) are one of many critical complications that may cause irreversible disability following robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). Previous studies have shown that the incidence rates of UES after RARC can reach 25.3%, with RARC having higher UES incidence rates [...] Read more.
Benign ureteroenteric anastomosis strictures (UESs) are one of many critical complications that may cause irreversible disability following robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). Previous studies have shown that the incidence rates of UES after RARC can reach 25.3%, with RARC having higher UES incidence rates compared to open radical cystectomy. Various known and unknown factors are involved in the occurrence of UES. To minimize the incidence of UES after RARC, our group has standardized the procedure and technique for intracorporeal urinary diversion by applying the following five strategies: (1) wide delicate dissection of the ureter and preservation of the periureteral tissues; (2) gentle handling of the ureter and security of periureteral tissues at the anastomotic site; (3) use of indocyanine green to confirm good blood supply; (4) standardization of the ample ureteral spatulation length for Wallace ureteroenteric anastomosis through objective measurements; and (5) development of an institutional standardized procedure manual. This review focused on the incidence, etiology, prevention, and management of UES after RARC to bring attention to the incidence of this complication while also proposing standardized surgical procedures to minimize its incidence after RARC. Full article
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Review
Immunotherapy in Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4093-4108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050347 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains a poorly understood disease with aggressive features, high relapse rates, and significant morbidity as well as mortality, yet persistently limited treatment options. For three decades, the treatment algorithm of SCLC has been stagnant despite multiple attempts to [...] Read more.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains a poorly understood disease with aggressive features, high relapse rates, and significant morbidity as well as mortality, yet persistently limited treatment options. For three decades, the treatment algorithm of SCLC has been stagnant despite multiple attempts to find alternative therapeutic options that could improve responses and increase survival rates. On the other hand, immunotherapy has been a thriving concept that revolutionized treatment options in multiple malignancies, rendering previously untreatable diseases potentially curable. In extensive stage SCLC, immunotherapy significantly altered the course of disease and is now part of the treatment algorithm in the first-line setting. Nevertheless, the important questions that arise are how best to implement immunotherapy, who would benefit the most, and finally, how to enhance responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current State of Immunotherapy for Lung Cancer)
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Article
Synaptotagmin 13 Is Highly Expressed in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4080-4092; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050346 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 155
Abstract
Background: Accumulating evidence indicates tumor-promoting roles of synaptotagmin 13 (SYT13) in several cancers; however, no studies have investigated its expression in breast cancer (BC). This study aimed to clarify the significance of SYT13 in BC. Methods: SYT13 mRNA expression levels were evaluated in [...] Read more.
Background: Accumulating evidence indicates tumor-promoting roles of synaptotagmin 13 (SYT13) in several cancers; however, no studies have investigated its expression in breast cancer (BC). This study aimed to clarify the significance of SYT13 in BC. Methods: SYT13 mRNA expression levels were evaluated in BC cell lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array analysis was conducted to determine the correlation between expression levels of SYT13 and other tumor-associated genes. Then, the association of SYT13 expression levels in the clinical BC specimens with patients’ clinicopathological factors was evaluated. These findings were subsequently validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results: Among 13 BC cell lines, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cells showed higher SYT13 mRNA levels than ER-negative cells. PCR array analysis revealed positive correlations between SYT13 and several oncogenes predominantly expressed in ER-positive BC, such as estrogen receptor 1, AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, and cyclin-dependent kinases 4. In 165 patients, ER-positive specimens exhibited higher SYT13 mRNA expression levels than ER-negative specimens. The TCGA database analysis confirmed that patients with ER-positive BC expressed higher SYT13 levels than ER-negative patients. Conclusion: This study suggests that SYT13 is highly expressed in ER-positive BC cells and clinical specimens, and there is a positive association of SYT13 with the ER signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Research in Breast Cancer Patients)
Review
Recent Advances in Photodynamic Imaging and Therapy in Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Clinical and Experimental Aspects
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4067-4079; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050345 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 211
Abstract
The therapeutic and diagnostic modalities of light are well known, and derivative photodynamic reactions with photosensitizers (PSs), specific wavelengths of light exposure and the existence of tissue oxygen have been developed since the 20th century. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective local treatment [...] Read more.
The therapeutic and diagnostic modalities of light are well known, and derivative photodynamic reactions with photosensitizers (PSs), specific wavelengths of light exposure and the existence of tissue oxygen have been developed since the 20th century. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective local treatment for cancer-specific laser ablation in malignancies of some organs, including the bile duct. Although curability for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is expected with surgery alone, patients with unresectable or remnant biliary cancer need other effective palliative therapies, including PDT. The effectiveness of PDT for cholangiocarcinoma has been reported experimentally or clinically, but it is not the standard option now due to problems with accompanied photosensitivity, limited access routes of irradiation, tumor hypoxia, etc. Novel derivative treatments such as photoimmunotherapy have not been applied in the field hepatobiliary system. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has been more widely applied in the clinical diagnoses of liver malignancies or liver vascularization. At present, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and indocyanine green (ICG) dyes are mainly used as PSs in PDD, and ICG has been applied for detecting liver malignancies or vascularization. However, no ideal tools for combining both PDD and PDT for solid tumors, including hepatobiliary malignancies, have been clinically developed. To proceed with experimental and clinical trials, it is necessary to clarify the effective photosensitive drugs that are feasible for photochemical diagnosis and local treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions)
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Review
Breast Cancer Surgery: New Issues
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4053-4066; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050344 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Since ancient times, breast cancer treatment has crucially relied on surgeons and clinicians making great efforts to find increasingly conservative approaches to cure the tumor. In the Halstedian era (mid-late 19th century), the predominant practice consisted of the radical and disfiguring removal of [...] Read more.
Since ancient times, breast cancer treatment has crucially relied on surgeons and clinicians making great efforts to find increasingly conservative approaches to cure the tumor. In the Halstedian era (mid-late 19th century), the predominant practice consisted of the radical and disfiguring removal of the breast, much to the detriment of women’s psycho-physical well-being. Thanks to enlightened scientists such as Professor Umberto Veronesi, breast cancer surgery has since impressively progressed and adopted a much more conservative approach. Over the last three decades, a better understanding of tumor biology and of its significant biomarkers has made the assessment of genetic and molecular profiles increasingly important. At the same time, neo-adjuvant treatments have been introduced, and great improvements in genetics, imaging technologies and in both oncological and reconstructive surgical techniques have been made. The future of breast cancer management must now rest on an ever more precise and targeted type of surgery that, through an increasingly multidisciplinary and personalized approach, can ensure oncological radicality while offering the best possible quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Article
Examining the Pathoplastic Moderating Role of Education on the Association between Depressive Mood and Self-Rated Health among Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4042-4052; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050343 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) is a salient patient outcome for cancer survivors, and depressive mood and education are known determinants of cancer survivors’ SRH. Moving beyond the well-established direct association between depressive mood, education, and SRH among cancer survivors, this epidemiological study investigated [...] Read more.
Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) is a salient patient outcome for cancer survivors, and depressive mood and education are known determinants of cancer survivors’ SRH. Moving beyond the well-established direct association between depressive mood, education, and SRH among cancer survivors, this epidemiological study investigated the pathoplastic role of education on depressive mood in relation to SRH among a nationally representative sample of cancer survivors in the United States. Methods: The 2019 National Health Interview Survey was analyzed using data from adult participants (≥18 years old) who self-reported as cancer survivors (n = 3844). Ordered logistic regression was used to evaluate the direct impact of depressive mood and education in relation to SRH. In addition, the pathoplastic moderating effect was evaluated using ordered logistic regression with an interaction term of depressive mood and education in the regression model. All analyses adjusted for complex sample weights so that findings are nationally representative. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, U.S. cancer survivors’ depressive mood was significantly associated with lower SRH, and U.S. cancer survivors’ higher education was significantly associated with higher SRH. As a pathoplastic moderator, cancer survivors’ education significantly moderated the association between depressive mood and SRH. The negative association between depressive mood and SRH was significantly greater among those with higher education. Conclusion: Moving beyond the direct association between depressive mood, education, and SRH, education served as a pathoplastic moderator in relation to depressive mood and SRH. Psycho-oncology providers need to be mindful of the “protective-risk” effect of education in relation to cancer survivors’ depressive mood and SRH. Full article
Article
The Influence of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Dose Intensity on Five-Year Outcomes in Resected Colon Cancer: A Single Centre Retrospective Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4031-4041; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050342 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 159
Abstract
There is evidence that achieving a dose intensity > 80% in adjuvant colon cancer treatment improves survival. In total, 192 consecutive patients with resected stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer that received adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who received at [...] Read more.
There is evidence that achieving a dose intensity > 80% in adjuvant colon cancer treatment improves survival. In total, 192 consecutive patients with resected stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer that received adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who received at least 6 weeks of adjuvant therapy were included. The primary objective was to assess the influence of dose index (DI) and relative dose intensity (RDI) on DFS and OS at 3 and 5 years in patients receiving fluorouracil-based doublet therapy with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX)(5-FU and oxaliplatin assessed separately), or capecitabine monotherapy. In the capecitabine group, DFS rates for 3 and 5 years were 66.7% and 57.6%, respectively, while OS rates were 80.3% and 66.7%, respectively. Those who received FOLFOX had DFS rates of 76.9% and 71.2% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. OS rates were 86.4% and 76.7% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Median RDI was 73.8% for capecitabine and 76.3% and 85.6% for the oxaliplatin and 5-FU components respectively. Based on a multivariate analysis in patients receiving FOLFOX, those with an oxaliplatin DI > 80% had improvements in DFS and OS compared to those with an oxaliplatin DI of ≤ 80%. Otherwise, there was no significant difference in DFS or OS when comparing patients who achieved an RDI or a DI of above versus below 80% in the patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for resected colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
Article
Multifocality and Multicentrality in Breast Cancer: Comparison of the Efficiency of Mammography, Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Group of Patients with Primarily Operable Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4016-4030; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050341 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Background: The multifocality and multicentrality of breast cancer (MFMCC) are the significant aspects that determine a specialist’s choice between applying breast-conserving therapy (BCT) or performing a mastectomy. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic [...] Read more.
Background: The multifocality and multicentrality of breast cancer (MFMCC) are the significant aspects that determine a specialist’s choice between applying breast-conserving therapy (BCT) or performing a mastectomy. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in women diagnosed with breast cancer before qualifying for surgical intervention to visualize other (additional) cancer foci. Methods: The study included 60 breast cancer cases out of 630 patients initially who underwent surgery due to breast cancer from January 2015 to April 2019. MG, CESM, and MRI were compared with each other in terms of the presence of MFMCC and assessed for compliance with the postoperative histopathological examination (HP). Results: Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of MFMCC in 33/60 (55%) patients. The sensitivity of MG in detecting MFMCC was 50%, and its specificity was 95.83%. For CESM, the sensitivity was 85.29%, and the specificity was 96.15%. For MRI, all the above-mentioned parameters were higher as follows: sensitivity—91.18%; specificity—92.31%. Conclusions: In patients with MFMCC, both CESM and MRI are highly sensitive in the detection of additional cancer foci. Both CESM and MRI change the extent of surgical intervention in every fourth patient. Full article
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Article
The Role of a Navigational Radiofrequency Ablation Device and Concurrent Vertebral Augmentation for Treatment of Difficult-to-Reach Spinal Metastases
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 4004-4015; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050340 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a navigational radiofrequency ablation device with concurrent vertebral augmentation in the treatment of posterior vertebral body metastatic lesions, which are technically difficult to access. Primary outcomes of the study were evaluation [...] Read more.
Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a navigational radiofrequency ablation device with concurrent vertebral augmentation in the treatment of posterior vertebral body metastatic lesions, which are technically difficult to access. Primary outcomes of the study were evaluation of pain palliation and radiologic assessment of local tumor control. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 41 vertebral spinal metastases involving the posterior vertebral body underwent computed tomography-guided percutaneous targeted radiofrequency ablation, with a navigational radiofrequency ablation device, associated with vertebral augmentation. Twenty-one patients (60%) had 1 or 2 metastatic lesions (Group A) and fourteen (40%) patients had multiple (>2) vertebral lesions (Group B). Changes in pain severity were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). Metastatic lesions were evaluated in terms of radiological local control. Results: The procedure was technically successful in all the treated vertebrae. Among the symptomatic patients, the mean VAS score dropped from 5.7 (95% CI 4.9–6.5) before tRFA and to 0.9 (95% CI 0.4–1.3) after tRFA (p < 0.001). The mean decrease in VAS score between baseline and one week follow up was 4.8 (95% CI 4.2–5.4). VAS decrease over time between one week and one year following radiofrequency ablation was similar, suggesting that pain relief was immediate and durable. Neither patients with 1–2 vertebral metastases, nor those with multiple lesions, showed radiological signs of local progression or recurrence of the tumor in the index vertebrae during a median follow up of 19 months (4–46 months) and 10 months (4–37 months), respectively. Conclusion: Treatment of spinal metastases with a navigational radiofrequency ablation device and vertebral augmentation can be used to obtain local tumor control with immediate and durable pain relief, providing effective treatment in the multimodality management of difficult-to-reach spinal metastases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment of Bone Metastasis)
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Review
Cognitive Assessment Tools Recommended in Geriatric Oncology Guidelines: A Rapid Review
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3987-4003; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050339 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Cognitive assessment is a cornerstone of geriatric care. Cognitive impairment has the potential to significantly impact multiple phases of a person’s cancer care experience. Accurately identifying this vulnerability is a challenge for many cancer care clinicians, thus the use of validated cognitive assessment [...] Read more.
Cognitive assessment is a cornerstone of geriatric care. Cognitive impairment has the potential to significantly impact multiple phases of a person’s cancer care experience. Accurately identifying this vulnerability is a challenge for many cancer care clinicians, thus the use of validated cognitive assessment tools are recommended. As international cancer guidelines for older adults recommend Geriatric Assessment (GA) which includes an evaluation of cognition, clinicians need to be familiar with the overall interpretation of the commonly used cognitive assessment tools. This rapid review investigated the cognitive assessment tools that were most frequently recommended by Geriatric Oncology guidelines: Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration test (BOMC), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Mini-Cog, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). A detailed appraisal of the strengths and limitations of each tool was conducted, with a focus on practical aspects of implementing cognitive assessment tools into real-world clinical settings. Finally, recommendations on choosing an assessment tool and the additional considerations beyond screening are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Care for Older Adults with Cancer)
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Article
Real World Outcomes in Patients with Advanced Melanoma Treated in Alberta, Canada: A Time-Era Based Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3978-3986; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050338 - 05 Oct 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Immune checkpoint and MAP kinase pathway inhibitors can significantly improve long-term survival for patients with melanoma. There is limited real-world data of these regimens’ effectiveness. We retrospectively analyzed 402 patients with unresectable and metastatic melanoma between August 2013 and July 2020 treated with [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint and MAP kinase pathway inhibitors can significantly improve long-term survival for patients with melanoma. There is limited real-world data of these regimens’ effectiveness. We retrospectively analyzed 402 patients with unresectable and metastatic melanoma between August 2013 and July 2020 treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and MAP kinase pathway targeted therapy in Alberta, Canada. Overall survival (OS) was compared using Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses. Subgroup survival outcomes were analyzed by first-line treatment regime and BRAF mutation status. Three treatment eras were defined based on drug access: prior to August 2013, August 2013 to November 2016, and November 2016 to July 2020. Across each era, there were improvements in median OS: 11.7 months, 15.9 months, and 33.6 months, respectively. Patients with BRAF mutant melanoma had improved median OS when they were treated with immunotherapy in the first line as opposed to targeted therapy (median OS not reached for immunotherapy versus 17.4 months with targeted treatment). Patients with BRAF wild-type melanomas had improved survival with ipilimumab and nivolumab versus those treated with a single-agent PD-1 inhibitor (median OS not reached and 21.2 months). Our real-world analysis confirms significant survival improvements with each subsequent introduction of novel therapies for advanced melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
Review
The Rethinking Clinical Trials (REaCT) Program. A Canadian-Led Pragmatic Trials Program: Strategies for Integrating Knowledge Users into Trial Design
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3959-3977; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050337 - 04 Oct 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
We reviewed patient and health care provider (HCP) surveys performed through the REaCT program. The REaCT team has performed 15 patient surveys (2298 respondents) and 13 HCP surveys (1033 respondents) that have addressed a broad range of topics in breast cancer management. Over [...] Read more.
We reviewed patient and health care provider (HCP) surveys performed through the REaCT program. The REaCT team has performed 15 patient surveys (2298 respondents) and 13 HCP surveys (1033 respondents) that have addressed a broad range of topics in breast cancer management. Over time, the proportion of surveys distributed by paper/regular mail has fallen, with electronic distribution now the norm. For the patient surveys, the median duration of the surveys was 3 months (IQR 2.5–7 months) and the median response rate was 84% (IQR 80–91.7%). For the HCP surveys, the median survey duration was 3 months (IQR 1.75–4 months), and the median response rate, where available, was 28% (IQR 21.2–49%). The survey data have so far led to: 10 systematic reviews, 6 peer-reviewed grant applications and 19 clinical trials. Knowledge users should be an essential component of clinical research. The REaCT program has integrated surveys as a standard step of their trials process. The COVID-19 pandemic and reduced face-to-face interactions with patients in the clinic as well as the continued importance of social media highlight the need for alternative means of distributing and responding to surveys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
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Article
Combined Exoscopic and Endoscopic Technique for Craniofacial Resection
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3945-3958; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050336 - 04 Oct 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
We determined the feasibility of the combined exoscopic-endoscopic technique (CEE) as an alternative to the microscope in craniofacial resection (CFR). This retrospective study was conducted at a single institution and included eight consecutive patients with head and neck tumors who underwent CFR between [...] Read more.
We determined the feasibility of the combined exoscopic-endoscopic technique (CEE) as an alternative to the microscope in craniofacial resection (CFR). This retrospective study was conducted at a single institution and included eight consecutive patients with head and neck tumors who underwent CFR between September 2019 and July 2021. During the transcranial approach, microsurgery was performed using an exoscope in the same manner as in traditional microscopic surgery, and an endoscope was used at the blind spot of the exoscope. The exoscope provided images of sufficient quality to perform microsurgery, while the sphenoid sinus lumen was the blind spot of the exoscope during anterior (n = 3) and anterolateral CFR (n = 2), and the medial aspect of the temporal bone was the blind spot of the exoscope during temporal bone resection (n = 2). These blind spots were visualized by the endoscope to facilitate accurate transection of the skull base. The advantages of the exoscope and endoscope include compact size, ergonomics, surgical field accessibility, and equal visual experience for neurosurgeons and head and neck surgeons, which enabled simultaneous transcranial and transfacial surgical procedures. All the surgeries were successful without any relevant complications. CEE is effective in transcranial skull base surgery, especially CFR involving simultaneous surgical procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in the Surgical Treatment of Brain Tumors)
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Systematic Review
Intraoperative Radiotherapy with Balloon-Based Electronic Brachytherapy System—A Systematic Review and First Bulgarian Experience in Breast Cancer Patients
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3932-3944; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050335 - 03 Oct 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
(1) Background: We aimed to analyze currently available studies with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a choice of treatment where the Xoft Axxent® electronic brachytherapy (eBx) system was used as a single-dose irradiation and an exclusive radiotherapy approach at the time of surgery [...] Read more.
(1) Background: We aimed to analyze currently available studies with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a choice of treatment where the Xoft Axxent® electronic brachytherapy (eBx) system was used as a single-dose irradiation and an exclusive radiotherapy approach at the time of surgery in patients with early breast cancer (EBC). We also compared the results of the systematic review to the Bulgarian experience. (2) Methods and Materials: We performed a systematic review of the studies published before February 2021, which investigate the application of a single-fraction 20 Gy radiation treatment, delivered at the time of lumpectomy in EBC patients with the Xoft Axxent® eBx System. A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect was performed. The results are reported following the PRISMA guidelines. The criteria on patients’ selection for IORT (the additional need for EBRT), cosmetic outcomes, and recurrence rate from the eligible studies are compared to the treatment results in Bulgarian patients. (3) Results: We searched through 1032 results to find 17 eligible studies. There are no published outcomes from randomized trials. When reported, the cosmetic outcomes in most of the studies are defined as excellent. The observed recurrence rate is low (1–5.8%). Still, the number of patients additionally referred to postoperative external breast radiotherapy (EBRT) is up to 31%. Amongst the 20 patients treated in Bulgaria, the cosmetic outcomes are also evaluated as excellent, five of which (25%) are referred for EBRT. Within median follow-up of 39 months, there was one local and one distal recurrence. (4) Conclusions: Current evidence demonstrates the Xoft Axxent® eBx system as a safe and feasible technique for IORT delivery in EBC patients. There are no randomized controlled trials conducted at this time point to prove its long-term effectiveness. Better patient selection and a reimbursement strategy have to be proposed to extend the application of this technique in Bulgaria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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Article
Psychosocial and Functional Predictors of Mental Disorder among Prostate Cancer Survivors: Informing Survivorship Care Programs with Evidence-Based Knowledge
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3918-3931; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050334 - 03 Oct 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Recent research has revealed that prostate cancer (PCa) survivors are facing a silent epidemic of mental disorder. These findings are not surprising when the side effects of highly effective current treatment modalities are considered. Here, we assess the association between urinary function and [...] Read more.
Recent research has revealed that prostate cancer (PCa) survivors are facing a silent epidemic of mental disorder. These findings are not surprising when the side effects of highly effective current treatment modalities are considered. Here, we assess the association between urinary function and quality of life indicators to mental disorder among survivors of PCa. This is a cross sectional examination of an analytical sample of 362 men with a history of PCa residing in the Maritimes who took a survey assessing social, physical and health-related quality of life indicators between 2017 and 2021. Mental disorder was assessed using Kessler’s Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Predictor variables included emotional, functional, social/family and spiritual well-being, measured by Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P), and urinary function was measured by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis evaluated the contribution of predictors while controlling for age, income, survivorship time (months) since diagnosis, relationship status and treatment modality. Mental disorder was identified among 15.8% of PCa survivors in this sample. High emotional (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69–0.96) and spiritual well-being (aOR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81–0.96) were protective factors against mental disorder. Men who screened positive for moderate to severe urinary tract symptoms had three times higher odds (aOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.10, 8.32) of screening positive for mental disorder. Men who were on active surveillance or radical prostatectomy with or without added treatment had higher (aOR = 5.87, 95% CI: 1.32–26.13 or aOR = 4.21, 95% CI: 1.07–16.51, respectively) odds of screening positive for mental disorder compared to men who received radiation treatment with or without hormonal therapy for their PCa diagnosis. Unmet emotional and spiritual needs, increased urinary problems and some forms of treatment (e.g., active surveillance or surgery) were associated with mental disorder among PCa survivors. The development of survivorship care programs and support systems that focus on the long-term effects of PCa treatments and the consequences of unmet psychosocial needs of patients during the survivorship journey are critically needed. Full article
Article
Treatment Regret, Mental and Physical Health Indicators of Psychosocial Well-Being among Prostate Cancer Survivors
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3900-3917; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050333 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 318
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) patients and survivors are at high risk of mental health illness. Here, we examined the contribution of treatment regret, mental and physical health indicators to the social/family, emotional, functional and spiritual well-being of PCa survivors. The study assessed 367 men [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) patients and survivors are at high risk of mental health illness. Here, we examined the contribution of treatment regret, mental and physical health indicators to the social/family, emotional, functional and spiritual well-being of PCa survivors. The study assessed 367 men with a history of PCa residing in the Maritimes Canada who were surveyed between 2017 and 2021. The outcomes were social/family, emotional, functional and spiritual well-being (FACT-P,FACIT-Sp). Predictor variables included urinary, bowel and sexual function (UCLA-PCI), physical and mental health (SF-12), and treatment regret. Logistic regression analyses were controlled for age, income, and survivorship time. Poor social/family, emotional, functional and spiritual well-being was identified among 54.4%, 26.5%, 49.9% and 63.8% of the men in the sample. Men who reported treatment regret had 3.62, 5.58, or 4.63 higher odds of poor social/family, emotional, and functional well-being, respectively. Men with low household income had 3.77 times higher odds for poor social/ well-being. Good mental health was a protective factor for poor social/family, emotional, functional, or spiritual well-being. Better physical and sexual health were protective factors for poor functional well-being. Seeking to promote PCa patients’ autonomy in treatment decisions and recognizing this process’ vulnerability in health care contexts is warranted. Full article
Article
Spinal Manifestation of Malignant Primary (PLB) and Secondary Bone Lymphoma (SLB)
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3891-3899; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050332 - 02 Oct 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Manifestation of malignant lymphoma in the spine is rare; there have only been a few cases reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, there is no gold standard for the management of patients suffering from spinal lymphoma manifestations. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed [...] Read more.
Manifestation of malignant lymphoma in the spine is rare; there have only been a few cases reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, there is no gold standard for the management of patients suffering from spinal lymphoma manifestations. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data for 37 patients (14 female, 23 male) with malignant lymphoma in the spine receiving intervention in our center from March 2006 until June 2020. Neurological impairment, pain, diagnostics, and/or surgical instability were the criteria for surgery in this patient cohort. Otherwise, only CT-guided biopsies were conducted. Analysis of the patient cohort was based on the Karnofsky performance status scale (KPSS), location of the lesion, spinal levels involved, spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS), surgical treatment, histopathological workup, adjuvant therapy, and overall survival. The following surgical procedures were performed: posterior stabilization and decompression in nine patients; decompression and/or tumor debulking in 18 patients; a two-staged procedure with dorsal stabilization and vertebral body replacement in four patients; decompression and biopsy in one patient; a two-stage procedure with kyphoplasty and posterior stabilization for one patient; posterior stabilization without decompression for one patient; a vertebroplasty and cement-augmented posterior stabilization for one patient; and a CT-guided biopsy alone for two patients. Twenty-one patients (56.78%) had ≥1 lesion in the thoracic spine, 10 patients (27.03%) had lesions in the lumbar spine, two patients had lesions in the cervicothoracic junction, two patients had lesions in the thoracolumbar junction, one patient had a lesion in the lumbosacral junction, and one patient had a lesion in the sacrum. The diagnoses of the histopathological workup were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in 23 (62.16%) cases, indolent lymphoma in 11 (29.74%) cases, anaplastic T-cell lymphoma in one case (2.70%), T-cell lymphoma in one case (2.70%), and Burkitt lymphoma in one (2.70%) case. The median overall survival was 7.2 months (range 0.1–266.7 months). Pre- and postoperative KPSS scores were 70% (IQR 60–80%). Manifestation of malignant lymphomas in the spine is rare. Similar to the approach taken for spine metastases, a surgical intervention in cases of neurological impairment or manifest or potential instability is indicated, followed by chemoimmunotherapy and radiotherapy. Full article
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Article
Prognostic Factors Influencing Survival and a Treatment Pattern Analysis of Conventional Palliative Radiotherapy for Patients with Bone Metastases
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3876-3890; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050331 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Background: Treatment indication for bone metastases is influenced by patient prognosis. Single-fraction radiotherapy (SFRT) was proven equally effective as multiple fractionation regimens (MFRT) but continues to be underused. Objective: Primary objectives: (a) to identify prognostic factors for overall survival and (b) to analyze [...] Read more.
Background: Treatment indication for bone metastases is influenced by patient prognosis. Single-fraction radiotherapy (SFRT) was proven equally effective as multiple fractionation regimens (MFRT) but continues to be underused. Objective: Primary objectives: (a) to identify prognostic factors for overall survival and (b) to analyze treatment patterns of palliative radiotherapy (proportion of SFRT indication and predictive factors of radiotherapy regimen) for bone metastases. Methods: 582 patients with bone metastases who underwent conventional radiotherapy between January 1st 2014–31 December 2017 were analyzed. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify predictors of overall survival. For the treatment pattern analysis, 677 radiotherapy courses were evaluated. The logistic regression model was used to identify potential predictors of radiotherapy regimen. Results: The 3-year overall survival was 15%. Prognostic factors associated with poor overall survival were multiple bone metastases [hazard ratio (HR = 5.4)], poor performance status (HR = 1.5) and brain metastases (HR = 1.37). SFRT prescription increased from 41% in 2017 to 51% in 2017. Predictors of SFRT prescription were a poor performance status [odds ratio (OR = 0.55)], lung (OR = 0.49) and urologic primaries (OR = 0.33) and the half-body lower site of irradiation (OR = 0.59). Spinal metastases were more likely to receive MFRT (OR = 2.09). Conclusions: Based on the prognostic factors we identified, a selection protocol for patients candidates for palliative radiotherapy to bone metastases could be established, in order to further increase SFRT prescription in our institution. Full article
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Article
The Challenge of Return to Work after Breast Cancer: The Role of Family Situation, CANTO Cohort
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3866-3875; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050330 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Return to work (RTW) after breast cancer is associated with improved quality of life. The link between household characteristics and RTW remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the family situation on women’s RTW two years [...] Read more.
Return to work (RTW) after breast cancer is associated with improved quality of life. The link between household characteristics and RTW remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the family situation on women’s RTW two years after breast cancer. We used data of a French prospective cohort of women diagnosed with stage I-III, primary breast cancer (CANTO, NCT01993498). Among women employed at diagnosis and under 57 years old, we assessed the association between household characteristics (living with a partner, marital status, number and age of economically dependent children, support by the partner) and RTW. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, household income, stage, comorbidities, treatments and their side effects. Analyzes stratified by age and household income were performed to assess the association between household characteristics and RTW in specific subgroups. Among the 3004 patients included, women living with a partner returned less to work (OR = 0.63 [0.47–0.86]) and decreased their working time after RTW. Among the 2305 women living with a partner, being married was associated with decreased RTW among women aged over 50 (OR = 0.57 [0.34–0.95]). Having three or more children (vs. none) was associated with lower RTW among women with low household income (OR = 0.28 [0.10–0.80]). Household characteristics should be considered in addition to clinical information to identify vulnerable women, reduce the social consequence of cancer and improve their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
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Review
CRAFT—A Proposed Framework for Decentralized Clinical Trials Participation in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3857-3865; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050329 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Canada’s vast geography, and centralized delivery of cancer care and clinical trials create barriers for trial participation for patients in remote and rural settings. The development and implementation of a framework that enables safe and regulatory compliant trial participation through local healthcare providers [...] Read more.
Canada’s vast geography, and centralized delivery of cancer care and clinical trials create barriers for trial participation for patients in remote and rural settings. The development and implementation of a framework that enables safe and regulatory compliant trial participation through local healthcare providers would benefit Canadian patients, clinicians, trial sponsors and the health care system. To address this issue, representatives of Canada’s cancer clinical trial community met to identify key challenges and develop recommendations for remote patient participation in trials. A structured literature review identified remote/rural trial delivery models. A panel of expert stakeholders reviewed the models and participated in a workshop to assess health system readiness, identify needed processes, tools and mechanisms, and develop recommendations for a Canadian framework for decentralized clinical trial conduct. The Canadian Remote Access Framework for clinical Trials (CRAFT) represents a risk-based approach used by site investigators to delegate responsibilities for a given trial to satellite health centres within a hub-and-spoke “trial cluster”. The Framework includes specific recommendations to ensure research experience, capacity, regulatory compliance and patient safety. Canada’s cancer care and telemedicine systems can be leveraged to enable broader access to clinical trials for patients who are geographically remote from cancer centres. CRAFT’s risk-based framework is based on other successful models of remote trial patient management and is in the pilot implementation phase in Canada. Full article
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Article
Prognostic Radiological Tools for Clinical Stage IA Pure Solid Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(5), 3846-3856; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/curroncol28050328 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 238
Abstract
In this study, we analyzed prognostic radiological tools and surgical outcomes for radiologically pure solid adenocarcinomas (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) in clinical stage IA. We retrospectively investigated 130 patients who underwent surgical resections. We assessed the predictive risk factors for recurrence [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyzed prognostic radiological tools and surgical outcomes for radiologically pure solid adenocarcinomas (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) in clinical stage IA. We retrospectively investigated 130 patients who underwent surgical resections. We assessed the predictive risk factors for recurrence and pathological lymph node metastasis (LNM). There was no statistical difference in recurrence free survival (RFS) or cancer-specific survival (CSS) between AD and SQ groups (p = 0.642 and p = 0.403, respectively). In the whole cohort, tumor size on lung window and mediastinal settings, and tumor disappearance ratio using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were not prognostic parameters (p = 0.127, 0.066, and 0.082, respectively). The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) using positron emission tomography-CT was associated with recurrence (p = 0.016). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, the cut-off value of SUVmax for recurrence was 4.6 (p = 0.016). The quantitative continuous variables using any radiological tools were not associated with LNM. However, tumor diameter on mediastinal setting ≥8 mm with SUVmax ≥2.4 could be a risk factor for LNM. Pure solid AD and SQ were equivalent for the RFS and CSS. SUVmax was useful to predict recurrence. The tumor diameter on a mediastinal setting and SUVmax were useful in predicting pathological LNM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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