Next Issue
Volume 15, January
Previous Issue
Volume 14, November

J. Risk Financial Manag., Volume 14, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 56 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Achieving excess returns with an active investment strategy is only possible if precise forecasts are made about future developments. In this study, 2761 ex-ante forecasts for the Dow Jones Industrial Index (DJI), the German Stock Market Index (DAX), and the Euro Stoxx 50 (SX5E) from various banks around the world are analyzed. It turns out that patterns that have been known for over 80 years still have a negative influence on the quality of forecasts up until today. Overall, an extensive analysis shows that forecasts are flawed and lag behind actual events, which is why we recommend that the analysts adapt their forecasting approach. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Determinants of Bank M&As in Central and Eastern Europe
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 621; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120621 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
This paper analyzes the determinants of bank mergers and acquisitions (M&As) from a bank-level perspective. The main objective of the study is to identify those mutual characteristics of all banking institutions from Central and Eastern Europe that are prone to be acquired versus [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the determinants of bank mergers and acquisitions (M&As) from a bank-level perspective. The main objective of the study is to identify those mutual characteristics of all banking institutions from Central and Eastern Europe that are prone to be acquired versus acquirer, or national versus cross-border. Using a database of more than 200 M&As transactions between 2000 and 2018 within Central and Eastern Europe, we document the main characteristics that influence the decision of merging, including the size of the bank, profitability, lending activities, liquidity, bank concentration, banking system stability, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, and the level of inflation. Higher effective average tax rate, which is associated with reduced tax avoidance, influences banks in a positive manner to be involved in the M&A process, findings that hold for targeted banks and domestic transactions. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the changes the financial crisis has projected on investors’ behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bank Efficiency and Risk Management)
Article
The Skewness Risk in the Energy Market
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 620; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120620 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
In this paper, we study the skewness risk and its return predictability in the energy market. Skewness risk is often used to measure the possibility of market crash. We study both physical skewness (market skewness and cross-sectional average realized skewness) estimated from underlying [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the skewness risk and its return predictability in the energy market. Skewness risk is often used to measure the possibility of market crash. We study both physical skewness (market skewness and cross-sectional average realized skewness) estimated from underlying stock returns and risk-neutral skewness evaluated from the options market. We find a significant positive relationship between one-month-ahead market return and average realized skewness in the energy market. This unique feature should be noted by investors and carefully considered by energy policymakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Finance and Sustainable Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hidden Supply Chain Risk and Incoterms®: Analysis and Mitigation Strategies
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 619; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120619 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Among the many sources of financial and operational risk in supply chains are the Incoterms®, which are terms of trade used to decide who does what in a cargo movement, when risk passes from seller to buyer and who pays for [...] Read more.
Among the many sources of financial and operational risk in supply chains are the Incoterms®, which are terms of trade used to decide who does what in a cargo movement, when risk passes from seller to buyer and who pays for which part of the movement. Wrong Incoterms® create unexpected costs or risks, at best, and inoperable contracts at worst, with all the challenges implied. This paper analyzes risk in supply chain management (SCM) through the lens of the responsibilities and costs imposed by Incoterms®. The authors also conducted a survey of 100 supply chain decision makers on supply chain contracts creation and Incoterms® knowledge in the population. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) of Incoterms® reveals many scenarios that pose financial, operational, and even legal risk to firms. Results suggest Incoterms® rules are poorly understood by supply chain practitioners in general, are often chosen by personnel who are not aware of the implications of their choices, and are therefore frequently chosen incorrectly or non-strategically, thereby increasing cost and risk. This paper discusses the implications of the analysis and survey results on supply chain performance as well as mitigation strategies for practitioners in strategically using Incoterms® to remove cost, risk, and delay from supply chain transactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Risk, Security, and Sustainability)
Article
Inflation and Hyperinflation Countries in 2018–2020: Risks of Different Assets and Foreign Trade
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 618; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120618 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Since the global financial crisis (2008–2009), central banks and governments in developed countries have relied upon loose monetary and financial policy. In the coronavirus pandemic era, these policies were taken even more to the extreme. In 2021, countries around the world started to [...] Read more.
Since the global financial crisis (2008–2009), central banks and governments in developed countries have relied upon loose monetary and financial policy. In the coronavirus pandemic era, these policies were taken even more to the extreme. In 2021, countries around the world started to experience product availability issues, and inflation in some cases was extremely high. There has been debate about the possibility of persistent high inflation. However, risks to assets and foreign trade in this new situation are unknown as all important hyperinflation cases are from decades to century-old. It is important to know what kind of implications high inflation has on modern economies. Therefore, in this study, 10 countries with the highest inflation were selected to be examined in the period of 2018–2020. In these countries, currencies lost a considerable amount of their value against US dollar in 2018–2020. Stock market indexes in many cases provided very high returns in local currency terms; however, against the US dollar, the index yield changed for the substantially negative. Apartment prices in general declined as well. In foreign trade, imports generally declined, while exports were mixed or even increased. However, it should be noted that all of these observations are influenced by the pandemic era and special circumstances of a particular country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Trade Theory and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Bayesian Semiparametric Realized Stochastic Volatility Model
by
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 617; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120617 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
This paper proposes a semiparametric realized stochastic volatility model by integrating the parametric stochastic volatility model utilizing realized volatility information and the Bayesian nonparametric framework. The flexible framework offered by Bayesian nonparametric mixtures not only improves the fitting of asymmetric and leptokurtic densities [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a semiparametric realized stochastic volatility model by integrating the parametric stochastic volatility model utilizing realized volatility information and the Bayesian nonparametric framework. The flexible framework offered by Bayesian nonparametric mixtures not only improves the fitting of asymmetric and leptokurtic densities of asset returns and logarithmic realized volatility but also enables flexible adjustments for estimation bias in realized volatility. Applications to equity data show that the proposed model offers superior density forecasts for returns and improved estimates of parameters and latent volatility compared with existing alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Markets, Financial Volatility and Beyond)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
COVID-19 Disclosure: A Novel Measurement and Annual Report Uncertainty
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 616; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120616 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
This paper provides a unique COVID-19 disclosure measurement and investigates the association between the level of COVID-19 disclosure and uncertainty within annual reports for UK FTSE-All share non-financial firms. We used automated textual analysis to score the sampled annual reports. The results show [...] Read more.
This paper provides a unique COVID-19 disclosure measurement and investigates the association between the level of COVID-19 disclosure and uncertainty within annual reports for UK FTSE-All share non-financial firms. We used automated textual analysis to score the sampled annual reports. The results show that the level of COVID-19 disclosure varies from industry to industry. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between COVID-19 disclosure and uncertainty in annual reports. Firms with larger boards exhibit more significant uncertainty in annual reports with COVID-19 disclosure. However, the significance of uncertainty in annual reports with COVID-19 disclosure remains at the same level with different board independence percentages. The unique findings of this paper are extremely relevant to governments, shareholders, policymakers, suppliers, and creditors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Issues on Auditing and Financial Reporting)
Article
Designing a Roadmap for Human Resource Management in the Banking 4.0
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 615; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120615 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
The banking sector has been going through a rapid transformation due to digitalization, regulatory requirements, customer expectations, and demographic trends. The purpose of this paper is to provide an advanced overview of the practical applications of human resource management (HRM) in Banking 4.0. [...] Read more.
The banking sector has been going through a rapid transformation due to digitalization, regulatory requirements, customer expectations, and demographic trends. The purpose of this paper is to provide an advanced overview of the practical applications of human resource management (HRM) in Banking 4.0. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to present the results of good practice form inventory and a Delphi study. The results of a European study show that human resource management practices such as reskilling, upskilling, and redeployment are a solution to mitigate challenges in the Banking 4.0 era. The HRM roadmap for banks will be a major guide to ensure effective workforce management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Banking during the COVID-19 Pandemia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
FinTechs, BigTechs and Banks—When Cooperation and When Competition?
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 614; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120614 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
While there is a fast-growing number of studies on FinTech, the relationships between technology companies and banks have received only limited attention in the research literature. Most of the studies on FinTech-bank interactions conducted so far address the questions: why banks collaborate with [...] Read more.
While there is a fast-growing number of studies on FinTech, the relationships between technology companies and banks have received only limited attention in the research literature. Most of the studies on FinTech-bank interactions conducted so far address the questions: why banks collaborate with FinTechs (reasons) and how they do it (forms of cooperation), whereas this paper aims at clarifying when the most likely form of their interaction is cooperation and when competition. To cover this cognitive gap, the conceptual framework to help explain which factors affect the type of interactions between technology companies and banks is presented in this paper. Based on extensive literature review and using the market-based approach, the external factors of the market position of banks and technology companies were examined. It was found that this position and therefore the basic type of interaction depends on the adoption level of FinTechs and BigTechs in individual countries/regions. The adoption of FinTechs and BigTechs turned out to be higher in EMDEs and lower in AEs, which makes it more likely that in the first group of countries tech companies would tend to serve as banks’ competitors, whereas in the second group they would rather collaborate with banks or choose the coopetition strategy. When analyzing internal factors, the resource-based approach and a slightly modified IO theory were applied. In this part, the strategic tool which enables the assessment of the extent to which assets, skills, and features of FinTechs, BigTechs and banks are complementary (which gives the rationale for cooperation) or substitutable (which gives the rationale for competition) was proposed. This study is a critical analysis based on desk research, that contributes to the existing literature by (1) providing a narrow definition of FinTech representing the subjective/institutional approach, (2) considering separately FinTechs and BigTechs, and (3) proposing the strategic tool which helps to assess comparative advantages of banks, FinTechs and BigTechs, and thus makes it easier to choose the most appropriate type of their interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue FinTech and the Future of Finance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Inflation Co-Movement Dynamics: A Cross-Country Investigation Using a Continuous Wavelet Approach
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 613; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120613 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
The economic literature provides evidence that inflation rates can co-move across nations because of a host of reasons, ranging from low frequency changes in monetary policy to similar high frequency shocks. Hence, this paper investigates inflation rate co-movements between nine (9) African countries [...] Read more.
The economic literature provides evidence that inflation rates can co-move across nations because of a host of reasons, ranging from low frequency changes in monetary policy to similar high frequency shocks. Hence, this paper investigates inflation rate co-movements between nine (9) African countries and their bilateral linkages with five (5) developed economies using continuous wavelets at different time scales or frequencies. Specifically, we examine the coherency and the phase relationship in time-frequency space in inflation rates of the selected countries. Several findings are documented. First, inflation rates co-movements in the nine African countries are time varying, multi-scale, and characterized by structural breaks. In addition, we find that inflation co-movements across countries in the Africa sub-region is weak at low frequencies. Furthermore, we find evidence of inflation co-movement between Africa and developed economies, suggesting that central banks and policy-makers in Africa need to monitor international price developments, and analyze their implications for their domestic economies. Second, we find that inflation rates in the selected African countries explain, on average, almost 80% of their own inflation variance over the whole sample period. Spillover analysis reveals that China and Canada account for a greater percentage of inflation variation in Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Financial Econometrics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Super RaSE: Super Random Subspace Ensemble Classification
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 612; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120612 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
We propose a new ensemble classification algorithm, named super random subspace ensemble (Super RaSE), to tackle the sparse classification problem. The proposed algorithm is motivated by the random subspace ensemble algorithm (RaSE). The RaSE method was shown to be a flexible framework that [...] Read more.
We propose a new ensemble classification algorithm, named super random subspace ensemble (Super RaSE), to tackle the sparse classification problem. The proposed algorithm is motivated by the random subspace ensemble algorithm (RaSE). The RaSE method was shown to be a flexible framework that can be coupled with any existing base classification. However, the success of RaSE largely depends on the proper choice of the base classifier, which is unfortunately unknown to us. In this work, we show that Super RaSE avoids the need to choose a base classifier by randomly sampling a collection of classifiers together with the subspace. As a result, Super RaSE is more flexible and robust than RaSE. In addition to the vanilla Super RaSE, we also develop the iterative Super RaSE, which adaptively changes the base classifier distribution as well as the subspace distribution. We show that the Super RaSE algorithm and its iterative version perform competitively for a wide range of simulated data sets and two real data examples. The new Super RaSE algorithm and its iterative version are implemented in a new version of the R package RaSEn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictive Modeling for Economic and Financial Data)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
COVID-19 Vaccinations and the Volatility of Energy Companies in International Markets
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 611; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120611 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has elevated both the risk and volatility of energy companies. Can mass vaccinations restore stability within this sector? To answer this question, we investigate stock market data from fifty-eight countries from January 2020 to April 2021. We document that vaccination [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has elevated both the risk and volatility of energy companies. Can mass vaccinations restore stability within this sector? To answer this question, we investigate stock market data from fifty-eight countries from January 2020 to April 2021. We document that vaccination programs assist in decreasing the volatility of energy stocks around the world. The drop in volatility is statistically and economically significant and robust to many considerations. The observed phenomenon survives a broad battery of control variables; it is also independent of the employed regression model or the volatility measurement approach. Moreover, the effect is not driven by the dynamics of the pandemic itself or the associated government interventions. Finally, we find the influence of vaccinations on energy stock volatility to be more pronounced in developed markets rather than in emerging ones. Our findings bear clear practical implications: policy makers around the world should consider the essential role of vaccinations in the energy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of COVID-19 on Economy, Energy, and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
People Financing Entrepreneurs within and outside the Family: Pandemic Decline and Resilience in Cultures around the World
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 610; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120610 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
People may finance entrepreneurs, often family members. Here, the question is: how has the COVID-19 pandemic affected people’s funding of family-related entrepreneurs and non-family-related entrepreneurs? The pandemic predictably reduced the funding of family-related entrepreneurs and especially the financing of non-family-related entrepreneurs. However, a [...] Read more.
People may finance entrepreneurs, often family members. Here, the question is: how has the COVID-19 pandemic affected people’s funding of family-related entrepreneurs and non-family-related entrepreneurs? The pandemic predictably reduced the funding of family-related entrepreneurs and especially the financing of non-family-related entrepreneurs. However, a culture supportive of family businesses may alleviate the declining funding of family-related entrepreneurs, predictably, while a secular–rational culture supportive of non-family businesses may alleviate the declining financing of non-family-related entrepreneurs. Similar to a field experiment, a globally representative survey was conducted before and after the disruption in 42 countries, interviewing 266,983 adults either before or after the disruption. The individual-level data are combined with national-level data on culture, amenable to hierarchical linear modeling. People’s financing of family-related entrepreneurs and especially of non-family-related entrepreneurs are found to have declined with the COVID-19 pandemic. However, culture provides resilience, in that the declining funding of family-related entrepreneurs was alleviated where the culture supports family businesses, and the declining funding of non-family-related entrepreneurs was alleviated in societies with a secular–rational culture. The findings contribute to contextualizing business angel financing temporally, as embedded in time before and after the COVID-19 pandemic disruption, and societally, as embedded in culture providing resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Entrepreneurial Finance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Audit Committees and COVID-19-Related Disclosure Tone: Evidence from Oman
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120609 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
In this study, we content analyzed chairman’s statements to measure the tone of COVID-19-related disclosure in Omani listed firms for the year ending 2020. We also examined whether audit committee (AC) characteristics influence disclosure tone. After controlling for corporate board and firm characteristics, [...] Read more.
In this study, we content analyzed chairman’s statements to measure the tone of COVID-19-related disclosure in Omani listed firms for the year ending 2020. We also examined whether audit committee (AC) characteristics influence disclosure tone. After controlling for corporate board and firm characteristics, our regression analysis showed that two AC characteristics (gender diversity and overlapped directors) positively affect good news information and negatively affect bad news information. It also showed that AC size positively affects bad news information. No evidence was found that the AC independence, meeting frequency, multi-directorships, and financial expertise have an impact on the tone of COVID-19-related disclosures. Our paper contributes to the growing literature by being the first study to examine whether AC characteristics influenced disclosure tone during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results indicate that investors and regulatory bodies should take AC characteristics into account in determining the tone of COVID-19-related disclosures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Issues on Auditing and Financial Reporting)
Article
Stacking Subsidies in Factor Markets: Evidence from Market Experiments
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 608; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120608 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Government policies employ different support programs such as subsidies to reduce risks, increase efficiency in markets, and enhance societal welfare. In markets such as ethanol markets, where multiple agents receive subsidy, it is often difficult to determine whether recipients of these support programs [...] Read more.
Government policies employ different support programs such as subsidies to reduce risks, increase efficiency in markets, and enhance societal welfare. In markets such as ethanol markets, where multiple agents receive subsidy, it is often difficult to determine whether recipients of these support programs will transfer some of their payments to other agents in the market. In this study, we use laboratory market experiments to understand subsidy incidence in markets where both buyers and sellers receive subsidies, and there are few buyers relative to sellers. Our results show that when subsidizing both sides of the market, framing effects matter, and when markets are buyer concentrated, subsidy distributions generally tend to favor buyers. With a per-unit subsidy of 20 tokens to both sides and an equal number of buyers and sellers in the market, we find that buyers increase their earnings by 13.4% while seller earnings decrease by 16.1%. On a per-schedule basis, buyer earnings in the concentrated market are similar to what we observed in the competitive market. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Trust, Transparency and Transnational Lessons from COVID-19
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 607; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120607 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The article engages in an exercise in reflexivity around trust and the COVID-19 pandemic. Common understandings of trust are mapped out across disciplinary boundaries and discussed in the cognitive fields in the medical and social sciences. While contexts matter in terms of the [...] Read more.
The article engages in an exercise in reflexivity around trust and the COVID-19 pandemic. Common understandings of trust are mapped out across disciplinary boundaries and discussed in the cognitive fields in the medical and social sciences. While contexts matter in terms of the understandings and uses made of concepts such as trust and transparency, comparison across academic disciplines and experiences drawn from country experiences allows general propositions to be formulated for further exploration. International health crises require efforts to rebuild trust, understood in a multidisciplinary sense as a relationship based on trusteeship, in the sense of mutual obligations in a global commons, where trust is a key public good. The most effective responses in a pandemic are joined up ones, where individuals (responsible for following guidelines) trust intermediaries (health professionals) and are receptive to messages (nudges) from the relevant governmental authorities. Hence, the distinction between hard medical and soft social science blurs when patients and citizens are required to be active participants in combatting the virus. Building on the diagnosis of a crisis of trust (in the field of health security and across multiple layers of governance), the article renews with calls to restore trust by enhancing transparency. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluating Business Model for Hotel Industry by Grey-TOPSIS
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 606; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120606 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Businesses in the past few years have paid more and more attention to brand awareness. More and more branded hotels have launched sub-brands so as to access a new market, boost brand exposure and value, and attain new market niches. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Businesses in the past few years have paid more and more attention to brand awareness. More and more branded hotels have launched sub-brands so as to access a new market, boost brand exposure and value, and attain new market niches. The purpose of the work was to explore, on the basis of the business model, factors affecting hotel sub-brand development in Taiwan. The modified Delphi method was firstly referred to. Next, a questionnaire was designed to serve as the basis of quantitative analysis. Third, experienced professionals from the hotel business were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey. The affecting factors of hotel sub-brand development were identified, and analysis data were generated. Grey-TOPSIS was employed to evaluate, calculate, and certify weight analysis and ranking of affecting indices of hotel sub-branding. The results explained that there are nine affecting factors for developing a hotel’s sub-branding. They are channel, target customers, customer relationship, key activities, revenue model, key partners, value proposition, key resources, and cost structure. The top four are the most important ones. This finding, figured out by using soft mathematical methods, can provide a proper evaluating way for decision making by the hotel industry, which wants to establish its sub-brands. Full article
Article
Firm Sustainable Development Goals and Firm Financial Performance through the Lens of Green Innovation Practices and Reporting: A Proactive Approach
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 605; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120605 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 605
Abstract
The current global economy demands synergy between ecological responsiveness and proactive business models. To analyze these dynamics, the objective of this study is to simultaneously investigate the effects of green innovation practices concerning the sustainable development goals (SDG) and financial performance of firms. [...] Read more.
The current global economy demands synergy between ecological responsiveness and proactive business models. To analyze these dynamics, the objective of this study is to simultaneously investigate the effects of green innovation practices concerning the sustainable development goals (SDG) and financial performance of firms. This study also advocates for the injection of green innovation reporting into sustainable reporting for greater disclosure. Data from sixty-seven companies from five continents and the top five blue chip firms for each country are collected through content analysis, with the generalized least squares (GLS) approach used to test a causal relationship hypothesis. The results indicate mixed findings, with green product innovation showing positive relationships with returns on equity (ROE) and returns on investments (ROI). At the same time, green process innovation shows negative relationships with returns on assets (ROA) but shows a positive impact on returns on investments (ROI) and firm SDGs. In contrast, green service innovation shows an insignificant relationship with financial performance and SDGs. On the other hand, non-operational green innovation variables and green marketing positively affect returns on assets and investment, showing significant negative impacts on returns on equity. However, green organizational innovation shows an insignificant relationship with firm financial performance and SDGs. In addition, this study also shows that the Australia/New Zealand region is the leader in green innovation reporting, followed by Europe, Asia, Africa, and lastly, North America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Marketing, Green Finance and Sustainable Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Conceptual Framework—Artificial Intelligence and Better Entrepreneurial Decision-Making: The Influence of Customer Preference, Industry Benchmark, and Employee Involvement in an Emerging Market
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120604 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Purpose: Technology initiatives are now incorporated into a wide range of business domains. The objective of this paper is to explore the possible effects that Artificial intelligence systems have on entrepreneurs’ decision-making, through the mediation of customer preference and industry benchmark. Design/methodology/approach [...] Read more.
Purpose: Technology initiatives are now incorporated into a wide range of business domains. The objective of this paper is to explore the possible effects that Artificial intelligence systems have on entrepreneurs’ decision-making, through the mediation of customer preference and industry benchmark. Design/methodology/approach: This is a non-empirical review of the literature and the development of a conceptual model. Searches were conducted in key academic databases, such as Emerald Online Journals, Taylor and Francis Online Journals, JSTOR Online Journals, Elsevier Online Journals, IEEE Xplore, and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) for papers which focused on Artificial intelligence (AI), Entrepreneurial decision-making, Customer preference, Industry benchmarks, and Employee involvement. In total, 25 articles met the predefined criteria and were used. Findings: The study proposes that Artificial intelligence systems can facilitate better decision-making from the entrepreneurial perspective. In addition, the study demonstrates that employees, as stakeholders, can moderate the relationship between Artificial intelligence systems and better decision-making for entrepreneurs with their involvement. Moreover, the study demonstrates that customer preference and industry benchmark can mediate the relationship between Artificial intelligence systems and better entrepreneur decision-making. Research limitations/implications: The study assumes a perfect ICT environment for the smooth operation of Artificial intelligence systems. However, this might not always be the case. The study does not consider the personal disposition of entrepreneurs in terms of ICT usage and adoption. Practical implications: This study proposes that entrepreneurial decision-making is enriched in an environment of Artificial intelligence systems, which is complemented by customer preference, industry benchmark, and employee involvement. This finding provides entrepreneurs with a possible technological tool for better decision-making, highlighting the endless options offered by Artificial intelligence systems. Social Implications: The introduction of AI in the business decision-making process comes with many social issues in relation to the impact machines have on humans and society. This paper suggests how this new technology should be used without destroying society. Originality/value: This conceptual framework serves as a valuable organizational spectrum for entrepreneurial development. In addition, this study makes a valuable contribution to entrepreneurial development through Artificial intelligence systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship and Business Models in the Digital Era)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Doping Sanctions in Sport: Knowledge and Perception of (Legal) Consequences of Doping—An Explorative Study in Austria
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 603; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120603 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Anti-doping rule violations (ADRVs) can lead to sports-related and legal sanctions, thus, being knowledgeable is important. Research into this knowledge and how athletes and their support personnel (ASP) perceive the control mechanisms and the appropriateness of (legal) sanctions is still scarce. This explorative [...] Read more.
Anti-doping rule violations (ADRVs) can lead to sports-related and legal sanctions, thus, being knowledgeable is important. Research into this knowledge and how athletes and their support personnel (ASP) perceive the control mechanisms and the appropriateness of (legal) sanctions is still scarce. This explorative study aimed to examine the knowledge and perception of existing (legal) sanctions in Austria, by distributing a questionnaire to Austrian athletes and ASP covering the topics of knowledge related to legal and sports-related consequences associated with a specific ADRV presented in a case study, their trust and satisfaction with specific agencies (based on the European Social Survey (ESS)) and perceived efficiency and effectiveness of the doping control system. Data were analyzed descriptively. All respondents (N = 59) agreed on a ban from sport to be appropriate. Knowledge about legal consequences and the trust in the judiciary and the sport governing bodies was moderate (6.82 out of 10). Perceived appropriate consequences were on average higher than the likely sanctions to be faced. Future prevention should include trust building measures in the institutions and the control system, improvement in terms of access to law and education for the target group and critical reflection on the existence of social norms. Furthermore, the implementation of risk management aspects should be part of future approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk in Sports and Challenges for Sports Organizations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment of the Competitiveness of Islamic Fintech Implementation: A Composite Indicator for Cross-Country Analysis
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 602; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120602 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 363
Abstract
Islamic fintech is growing fast, especially in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OOIC) member countries. In recent years, it has become one of the driving forces for the Islamic financial industry. Though the pandemic negatively affected global financial business, including conventional and Islamic [...] Read more.
Islamic fintech is growing fast, especially in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OOIC) member countries. In recent years, it has become one of the driving forces for the Islamic financial industry. Though the pandemic negatively affected global financial business, including conventional and Islamic segments, Islamic fintech has continued its steady development. i-Fintech increases access to Islamic financial services and financial inclusion in general to provide ESG-rich investment opportunities. The rise of Islamic fintech can help countries become financial hubs and promote sustainable development goals. This paper is aimed at designing an original composite indicator of the competitiveness of Islamic fintech adoption in order to perform a comprehensive assessment of the competitive advantages that are being used across various countries. The research methodology includes data for 65 countries where Islamic fintech companies are represented. We analysed 31 variables describing the development of Islamic financial technologies in each country and combined them into five categories included in the composite indicator. Key factors that determine the development of Islamic financial technologies in different countries around the globe are singled out. The economies with the highest scores are analysed to define their strengths and weaknesses. The practices of the leading countries that address identified vulnerabilities are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Technology (Fintech) and Sustainable Financing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
ICT Adoption and Stock Market Development in Africa: An Application of the Panel ARDL Bounds Testing Procedure
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 601; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120601 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 364
Abstract
The nexus between Information Communication Technology (ICT) and stock market development has been predominantly based on studies of the developed markets and high-income economies of the world. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationship between ICT adoption and stock [...] Read more.
The nexus between Information Communication Technology (ICT) and stock market development has been predominantly based on studies of the developed markets and high-income economies of the world. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationship between ICT adoption and stock market development in Africa. The study examined a panel of 11 African stock exchanges for the period 2008–2017 and employed the panel ARDL bounds testing procedure to test for cointegration and examine the causal relationship between ICT adoption and stock market development. The dependent variable employed was the stock market development index (FINDEX), while the independent variable was the ICT adoption index (ICTDEX), and the financial freedom index (FFI) was employed as a control variable. Firstly, the results of the study documented that the variables are cointegrated in the long term. Secondly, the results of the study documented a bi-directional causal relationship (complementarity) between ICT adoption and stock market development. In essence, ICT adoption and stock market development reinforce each other. Thirdly, the study established a causal relationship running from financial freedom to stock market development. This lends credence to the notion that financial market deregulation promotes stock market development. Lastly, a positive causal relationship that ran from financial freedom to stock market development was documented. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in the sense that it is the first study to examine the phenomenon of the ICT–stock market development nexus by employing a panel study. Hitherto, studies were mainly country-specific in nature. The findings of the research imply that policymakers should be more resolute when formulating ICT policies, as ICT adoption can drive stock market development and vice versa for better economic growth. Policymakers should embrace policies that support the deregulation of stock markets as this will lead to the development of the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Financial Markets)
Article
Corporate Governance from a Cross-Country Perspective and a Comparison with Romania
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120600 - 13 Dec 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
This paper investigates corporate governance from a cross-country perspective and makes a comparison with Romania. There are studies that examine the corporate governance issues related to Romanian companies, but these studies provide only qualitative and descriptive accounts of the research topic, with limited [...] Read more.
This paper investigates corporate governance from a cross-country perspective and makes a comparison with Romania. There are studies that examine the corporate governance issues related to Romanian companies, but these studies provide only qualitative and descriptive accounts of the research topic, with limited cross-country analysis. The present paper complements the literature by producing a quantitative analysis of cross-country corporate governance and makes a comparison with Romania. For this purpose, a set of corporate governance indicators from a large sample of 39 advanced and developing countries was collected for the 2006–2020 period. In terms of corporate governance dimensions, it was found that Romania underperforms other developing countries in the dimensions of director liability and ownership and control, while it outperforms them in the dimensions of corporate transparency, disclosure, and shareholder rights. The results indicate that the stagnant corporate governance scores and the low development level of stock markets stand out as important business challenges for the country. The correlation and regression analyses show that stock market development is closely associated with corporate governance dimensions and, overall, corporate governance scores matter greatly for the economic growth of countries, such as Romania, which can benefit greatly from the improvement of corporate governance codes and practices in the private sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corporate Finance, Governance, and Social Responsibility)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Initial Coin Offering (ICO) Process: Regulation and Risks
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 599; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120599 - 12 Dec 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
ICOs are very attractive for investors and issuers. ICOs allow funding raising in exchange for cryptographically secure tokens, which are a means of paying for future projects or services. However, there is insignificant regulation of this process all over the world. Some countries [...] Read more.
ICOs are very attractive for investors and issuers. ICOs allow funding raising in exchange for cryptographically secure tokens, which are a means of paying for future projects or services. However, there is insignificant regulation of this process all over the world. Some countries have banned crypto assets; others have allowed the free use of tokens but do not give them official status. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the legal regulation of ICOs in different countries, dividing them into three groups: in the first group are the countries with developed legal norms and rules for conducting ICO, they have the subsequent circulation of tokens on their territory; in the second group are the countries that are most friendly to ICOs; the third group of countries has a wait-and-see attitude. The author connect the insufficient law regulation and risks of ICOs in different countries. The types of ICO risks are divided into three main categories: financial, technical, and analytical. The main ways to reduce these risks, depending on their types, are highlighted in this study. They are connected with the improvement of the legal regulation of the publication of a White Paper, the KYC procedure, and the involvement of escrow agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Risk)
Article
The Impact of Instrumental Stakeholder Management on Blockchain Technology Adoption Behavior in Agri-Food Supply Chains
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 598; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120598 - 11 Dec 2021
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Coffee is the second most important commodity in terms of global trade value, with its global market value exceeding $460 billion in 2020. Its supply networks, which encompass multiple stakeholders, are complex and nontransparent. Blockchain is a trust technology, and some coffee firms [...] Read more.
Coffee is the second most important commodity in terms of global trade value, with its global market value exceeding $460 billion in 2020. Its supply networks, which encompass multiple stakeholders, are complex and nontransparent. Blockchain is a trust technology, and some coffee firms have embraced this technology to provide trust attributes to consumers while making their supply chain more transparent. For businesses to gain the expected productivity advantages, a technology must be adopted and used. As theoretical and empirical research on blockchain technology adoption is scarce, this article attempts to identify behavioral intentions of stakeholders in the supply network toward its adoption. Based on exploratory interviews, this article develops a blockchain technology adoption model based on factors relevant to individuals’ use behavior. The results provide evidence that a normative stakeholder management approach positively impacts use behavior. Managers can use the model to benchmark and improve their corporate social responsibility strategy to obtain better returns on blockchain investments. This study closes a research gap as, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no research has been conducted so far on the impact of an instrumental stakeholder management approach on blockchain technology adoption behavior. Understanding how stakeholder management can compensate for the lack of consensus mechanisms in private and consortium blockchains, as well as understanding the factors influencing behavioral intentions toward the use of a technology, can provide for managerial guidance toward the development of an effective stakeholder management strategy, which eventually can result in a competitive advantage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Risk, Security, and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Climate Transition Risk and the Impact on Green Bonds
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 597; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120597 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The green bond market develops rapidly and aims to contribute to climate mitigation and adaptation significantly. Green bonds as any asset are subject to transition climate risk, namely, regulatory risk. This paper investigates the impact of unexpected political events on the risk and [...] Read more.
The green bond market develops rapidly and aims to contribute to climate mitigation and adaptation significantly. Green bonds as any asset are subject to transition climate risk, namely, regulatory risk. This paper investigates the impact of unexpected political events on the risk and returns of green bonds and their correlation with other assets. We apply a traditional and regression-based event study and find that events related to climate change policy impact green bonds indices. Green bonds indices anticipated the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change as a favorable event, whereas the 2016 US Presidential Election had a significant negative impact. The negative impact of the US withdrawal from the Paris agreement is more prominent for municipal but not corporate green bonds. All three events also have a similar effect on green bonds performance in the long term. The results imply that, despite the benefits of issuing green bonds, there are substantial risks that are difficult to hedge. This additional risk to green bonds might cause a time-varying premium for green bonds found in previous literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Banking and Finance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Relationship between LGBT Executives and Firms’ Value and Financial Performance
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120596 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Drawing on resource-based theory, we analyze the relationship between having LGBT executives in a firm’s leadership positions and its value and financial performance. The existence of LGBT executives is considered to be associated with employee and customer goodwill towards LGBT-friendly policies and practices [...] Read more.
Drawing on resource-based theory, we analyze the relationship between having LGBT executives in a firm’s leadership positions and its value and financial performance. The existence of LGBT executives is considered to be associated with employee and customer goodwill towards LGBT-friendly policies and practices and to lead to human capital and reputational benefits. Our findings suggest that there is a positive effect of the presence of LBGT executives on a firm’s value, both directly and indirectly, through its effect on the firm’s financial performance. We interpret this as suggesting that besides the direct effect of the existence of LGBT executives on a firm’s value, an indirect effect also exists, mediated through financial performance, presumably through the effect that this has on employee and customer goodwill towards LGBT-friendly policies and practices. As far as we are aware, our study is the first to examine the impacts of the presence of LGBT executives, as well as distinguish between its direct and indirect effects on firm value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corporate Finance, Governance, and Social Responsibility)
Article
Support Mechanisms for Canada’s Cultural and Creative Sectors during COVID-19
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 595; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120595 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
The cultural and creative industries enhance the quality of life for Canadians and visitors to Canada. However, definitions of the sector vary, presenting challenges for researchers and policymakers. Government data shows that the pandemic job and revenue loss were disproportionate in the arts. [...] Read more.
The cultural and creative industries enhance the quality of life for Canadians and visitors to Canada. However, definitions of the sector vary, presenting challenges for researchers and policymakers. Government data shows that the pandemic job and revenue loss were disproportionate in the arts. The Canadian government created a range of financial tools (grants and subsidies) to support the sector during the Pandemic. This paper analyzes these financial instruments created in response to the Pandemic. This paper offers a case study on how government can support the economic and social success of the creative and cultural sector (CCS) in Canada and avoid the risk of the cultural ecosystem collapsing. In addition, the key findings may be helpful in other industries and markets when exploring ways to support the cultural and creative sectors, which are vital components of domestic and tourism activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Sustainability of Culture and Cultural Tourism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Perception of Consumers’ Awareness about Sustainability of Fashion Brands
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120594 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Consumers’ perception, awareness, and behavior toward sustainable fashion were surveyed with a questionnaire in which 263 respondents participated, and obtained data were primarily analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. The focus of this research was consumer attitudes toward sustainable business practices of [...] Read more.
Consumers’ perception, awareness, and behavior toward sustainable fashion were surveyed with a questionnaire in which 263 respondents participated, and obtained data were primarily analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test. The focus of this research was consumer attitudes toward sustainable business practices of fashion brands. Based on the conducted research, differences were found between sexes in the perception of their own awareness of sustainability in fashion, where women consider their own awareness to be higher than men’s. The perception of fashion sustainability awareness in women younger than 35 and those over 36 was also examined. The research showed a gap between consumers’ awareness, their positive attitude toward sustainable fashion, and a lack of action in that direction when making purchasing decisions. The results of these studies provide a better understanding of one’s own perception of awareness in terms of fashion sustainability and various connected factors, as well as difference in both sexes’ awareness of these factors, which may influence consumer behavior related to sustainable fashion products. Thus they can facilitate the implementation of relevant strategies in the fashion industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy)
Article
Sticky Stock Market Analysts
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 593; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120593 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Technological progress in recent years has made new methods available for making forecasts in a variety of areas. We examine the success of ex-ante stock market forecasts of three major stock market indices, i.e., the German Stock Market Index (DAX), the Dow Jones [...] Read more.
Technological progress in recent years has made new methods available for making forecasts in a variety of areas. We examine the success of ex-ante stock market forecasts of three major stock market indices, i.e., the German Stock Market Index (DAX), the Dow Jones Industrial Index (DJI), and the Euro Stoxx 50 (SX5E). We test whether the forecasts prove true when they reach their effective dates and are therefore suitable for active investment strategies. We revive the thoughts of the American sociologist William Fielding Ogburn, who argues that forecasters consistently underestimate the variability of the future. In addition, we draw on some contemporary measures of forecast quality (prediction-realization diagram, test of unbiasedness, and Diebold–Mariano test). We reveal that (a) unusual events are underrepresented in the forecasts, (b) the dispersion of the forecasts lags behind that of the actual events, (c) the slope of the regression lines in the prediction-realization diagram is <1, (d) the forecasts are highly biased, and (e) the quality of the forecasts is not significantly better than that of naïve forecasts. The overall behavior of the forecasters can be described as “sticky” because their forecasts adhere too strongly to long-term trends in the indices and are thus characterized by conservatism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Forecasting)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimal Returns in Indian Stock Market during Global Pandemic: A Comparative Study
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(12), 592; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jrfm14120592 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
This research is an extension of our previous work [Debnath and Srivastava (2021)]. In that paper, we designed a portfolio based on data taken from National Stock Exchange (NSE), India, during 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 and performance of that portfolio [...] Read more.
This research is an extension of our previous work [Debnath and Srivastava (2021)]. In that paper, we designed a portfolio based on data taken from National Stock Exchange (NSE), India, during 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 and performance of that portfolio in real-life situation was examined during 1 January 2021 to 21 May 2021 assuming investments were made according to the proposed model. We observed that our proposed portfolio was efficient enough in that period to beat the performance of most of the in-demand mutual funds. It was also conjectured that this portfolio would be sustainable post the second wave of COVID-19 in India. In the present paper, our aim is to validate this conjecture. Here, we examine the performance of this portfolio during the period 1 January 2021 to 18 October 2021 using the same previous data set. We also investigate the performance of this portfolio if it was blindly adopted without applying the stock selection methodology during 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019. Using paired t-test between the difference of means of the performances in the year 2019 and the year 2021, we show that the performance in 2021 was significantly enhanced because of selecting the stocks applying our proposed model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mathematical Modelling in Business Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop